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midi.c

/*
 * usbmidi.c - ALSA USB MIDI driver
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2002-2009 Clemens Ladisch
 * All rights reserved.
 *
 * Based on the OSS usb-midi driver by NAGANO Daisuke,
 *          NetBSD's umidi driver by Takuya SHIOZAKI,
 *          the "USB Device Class Definition for MIDI Devices" by Roland
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer,
 *    without modification.
 * 2. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
 *    derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * Alternatively, this software may be distributed and/or modified under the
 * terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
 * Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
 * version.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
 * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
 * ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
 * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
 * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
 * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
 * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
 * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/types.h>
#include <linux/bitops.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <linux/spinlock.h>
#include <linux/string.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/timer.h>
#include <linux/usb.h>
#include <linux/wait.h>
#include <linux/usb/audio.h>

#include <sound/core.h>
#include <sound/control.h>
#include <sound/rawmidi.h>
#include <sound/asequencer.h>
#include "usbaudio.h"
#include "midi.h"
#include "helper.h"

/*
 * define this to log all USB packets
 */
/* #define DUMP_PACKETS */

/*
 * how long to wait after some USB errors, so that khubd can disconnect() us
 * without too many spurious errors
 */
#define ERROR_DELAY_JIFFIES (HZ / 10)

#define OUTPUT_URBS 7
#define INPUT_URBS 7


MODULE_AUTHOR("Clemens Ladisch <clemens@ladisch.de>");
MODULE_DESCRIPTION("USB Audio/MIDI helper module");
MODULE_LICENSE("Dual BSD/GPL");


00079 struct usb_ms_header_descriptor {
      __u8  bLength;
      __u8  bDescriptorType;
      __u8  bDescriptorSubtype;
      __u8  bcdMSC[2];
      __le16 wTotalLength;
} __attribute__ ((packed));

00087 struct usb_ms_endpoint_descriptor {
      __u8  bLength;
      __u8  bDescriptorType;
      __u8  bDescriptorSubtype;
      __u8  bNumEmbMIDIJack;
      __u8  baAssocJackID[0];
} __attribute__ ((packed));

struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint;
struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint;
struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint;

00099 struct usb_protocol_ops {
      void (*input)(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint*, uint8_t*, int);
      void (*output)(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint *ep, struct urb *urb);
      void (*output_packet)(struct urb*, uint8_t, uint8_t, uint8_t, uint8_t);
      void (*init_out_endpoint)(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint*);
      void (*finish_out_endpoint)(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint*);
};

00107 struct snd_usb_midi {
      struct usb_device *dev;
      struct snd_card *card;
      struct usb_interface *iface;
      const struct snd_usb_audio_quirk *quirk;
      struct snd_rawmidi *rmidi;
      struct usb_protocol_ops* usb_protocol_ops;
      struct list_head list;
      struct timer_list error_timer;
      spinlock_t disc_lock;
      struct mutex mutex;
      u32 usb_id;
      int next_midi_device;

00121       struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint {
            struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint *out;
            struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint *in;
      } endpoints[MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS];
      unsigned long input_triggered;
      unsigned int opened;
      unsigned char disconnected;

      struct snd_kcontrol *roland_load_ctl;
};

00132 struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint {
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi;
00134       struct out_urb_context {
            struct urb *urb;
            struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint *ep;
      } urbs[OUTPUT_URBS];
      unsigned int active_urbs;
      unsigned int drain_urbs;
      int max_transfer;       /* size of urb buffer */
      struct tasklet_struct tasklet;
      unsigned int next_urb;
      spinlock_t buffer_lock;

00145       struct usbmidi_out_port {
            struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep;
            struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream;
            int active;
            uint8_t cable;          /* cable number << 4 */
            uint8_t state;
#define STATE_UNKNOWN   0
#define STATE_1PARAM    1
#define STATE_2PARAM_1  2
#define STATE_2PARAM_2  3
#define STATE_SYSEX_0   4
#define STATE_SYSEX_1   5
#define STATE_SYSEX_2   6
            uint8_t data[2];
      } ports[0x10];
      int current_port;

      wait_queue_head_t drain_wait;
};

00165 struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint {
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi;
      struct urb* urbs[INPUT_URBS];
00168       struct usbmidi_in_port {
            struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream;
            u8 running_status_length;
      } ports[0x10];
      u8 seen_f5;
      u8 error_resubmit;
      int current_port;
};

static void snd_usbmidi_do_output(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep);

static const uint8_t snd_usbmidi_cin_length[] = {
      0, 0, 2, 3, 3, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 3, 1
};

/*
 * Submits the URB, with error handling.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_submit_urb(struct urb* urb, gfp_t flags)
{
      int err = usb_submit_urb(urb, flags);
      if (err < 0 && err != -ENODEV)
            snd_printk(KERN_ERR "usb_submit_urb: %d\n", err);
      return err;
}

/*
 * Error handling for URB completion functions.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_urb_error(int status)
{
      switch (status) {
      /* manually unlinked, or device gone */
      case -ENOENT:
      case -ECONNRESET:
      case -ESHUTDOWN:
      case -ENODEV:
            return -ENODEV;
      /* errors that might occur during unplugging */
      case -EPROTO:
      case -ETIME:
      case -EILSEQ:
            return -EIO;
      default:
            snd_printk(KERN_ERR "urb status %d\n", status);
            return 0; /* continue */
      }
}

/*
 * Receives a chunk of MIDI data.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_input_data(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep, int portidx,
                           uint8_t* data, int length)
{
      struct usbmidi_in_port* port = &ep->ports[portidx];

      if (!port->substream) {
            snd_printd("unexpected port %d!\n", portidx);
            return;
      }
      if (!test_bit(port->substream->number, &ep->umidi->input_triggered))
            return;
      snd_rawmidi_receive(port->substream, data, length);
}

#ifdef DUMP_PACKETS
static void dump_urb(const char *type, const u8 *data, int length)
{
      snd_printk(KERN_DEBUG "%s packet: [", type);
      for (; length > 0; ++data, --length)
            printk(" %02x", *data);
      printk(" ]\n");
}
#else
#define dump_urb(type, data, length) /* nothing */
#endif

/*
 * Processes the data read from the device.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_in_urb_complete(struct urb* urb)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep = urb->context;

      if (urb->status == 0) {
            dump_urb("received", urb->transfer_buffer, urb->actual_length);
            ep->umidi->usb_protocol_ops->input(ep, urb->transfer_buffer,
                                       urb->actual_length);
      } else {
            int err = snd_usbmidi_urb_error(urb->status);
            if (err < 0) {
                  if (err != -ENODEV) {
                        ep->error_resubmit = 1;
                        mod_timer(&ep->umidi->error_timer,
                                jiffies + ERROR_DELAY_JIFFIES);
                  }
                  return;
            }
      }

      urb->dev = ep->umidi->dev;
      snd_usbmidi_submit_urb(urb, GFP_ATOMIC);
}

static void snd_usbmidi_out_urb_complete(struct urb* urb)
{
      struct out_urb_context *context = urb->context;
      struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep = context->ep;
      unsigned int urb_index;

      spin_lock(&ep->buffer_lock);
      urb_index = context - ep->urbs;
      ep->active_urbs &= ~(1 << urb_index);
      if (unlikely(ep->drain_urbs)) {
            ep->drain_urbs &= ~(1 << urb_index);
            wake_up(&ep->drain_wait);
      }
      spin_unlock(&ep->buffer_lock);
      if (urb->status < 0) {
            int err = snd_usbmidi_urb_error(urb->status);
            if (err < 0) {
                  if (err != -ENODEV)
                        mod_timer(&ep->umidi->error_timer,
                                jiffies + ERROR_DELAY_JIFFIES);
                  return;
            }
      }
      snd_usbmidi_do_output(ep);
}

/*
 * This is called when some data should be transferred to the device
 * (from one or more substreams).
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_do_output(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep)
{
      unsigned int urb_index;
      struct urb* urb;
      unsigned long flags;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&ep->buffer_lock, flags);
      if (ep->umidi->disconnected) {
            spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ep->buffer_lock, flags);
            return;
      }

      urb_index = ep->next_urb;
      for (;;) {
            if (!(ep->active_urbs & (1 << urb_index))) {
                  urb = ep->urbs[urb_index].urb;
                  urb->transfer_buffer_length = 0;
                  ep->umidi->usb_protocol_ops->output(ep, urb);
                  if (urb->transfer_buffer_length == 0)
                        break;

                  dump_urb("sending", urb->transfer_buffer,
                         urb->transfer_buffer_length);
                  urb->dev = ep->umidi->dev;
                  if (snd_usbmidi_submit_urb(urb, GFP_ATOMIC) < 0)
                        break;
                  ep->active_urbs |= 1 << urb_index;
            }
            if (++urb_index >= OUTPUT_URBS)
                  urb_index = 0;
            if (urb_index == ep->next_urb)
                  break;
      }
      ep->next_urb = urb_index;
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ep->buffer_lock, flags);
}

static void snd_usbmidi_out_tasklet(unsigned long data)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep = (struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint *) data;

      snd_usbmidi_do_output(ep);
}

/* called after transfers had been interrupted due to some USB error */
static void snd_usbmidi_error_timer(unsigned long data)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi *umidi = (struct snd_usb_midi *)data;
      unsigned int i, j;

      spin_lock(&umidi->disc_lock);
      if (umidi->disconnected) {
            spin_unlock(&umidi->disc_lock);
            return;
      }
      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i) {
            struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint *in = umidi->endpoints[i].in;
            if (in && in->error_resubmit) {
                  in->error_resubmit = 0;
                  for (j = 0; j < INPUT_URBS; ++j) {
                        in->urbs[j]->dev = umidi->dev;
                        snd_usbmidi_submit_urb(in->urbs[j], GFP_ATOMIC);
                  }
            }
            if (umidi->endpoints[i].out)
                  snd_usbmidi_do_output(umidi->endpoints[i].out);
      }
      spin_unlock(&umidi->disc_lock);
}

/* helper function to send static data that may not DMA-able */
static int send_bulk_static_data(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep,
                         const void *data, int len)
{
      int err = 0;
      void *buf = kmemdup(data, len, GFP_KERNEL);
      if (!buf)
            return -ENOMEM;
      dump_urb("sending", buf, len);
      if (ep->urbs[0].urb)
            err = usb_bulk_msg(ep->umidi->dev, ep->urbs[0].urb->pipe,
                           buf, len, NULL, 250);
      kfree(buf);
      return err;
}

/*
 * Standard USB MIDI protocol: see the spec.
 * Midiman protocol: like the standard protocol, but the control byte is the
 * fourth byte in each packet, and uses length instead of CIN.
 */

static void snd_usbmidi_standard_input(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep,
                               uint8_t* buffer, int buffer_length)
{
      int i;

      for (i = 0; i + 3 < buffer_length; i += 4)
            if (buffer[i] != 0) {
                  int cable = buffer[i] >> 4;
                  int length = snd_usbmidi_cin_length[buffer[i] & 0x0f];
                  snd_usbmidi_input_data(ep, cable, &buffer[i + 1], length);
            }
}

static void snd_usbmidi_midiman_input(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep,
                              uint8_t* buffer, int buffer_length)
{
      int i;

      for (i = 0; i + 3 < buffer_length; i += 4)
            if (buffer[i + 3] != 0) {
                  int port = buffer[i + 3] >> 4;
                  int length = buffer[i + 3] & 3;
                  snd_usbmidi_input_data(ep, port, &buffer[i], length);
            }
}

/*
 * Buggy M-Audio device: running status on input results in a packet that has
 * the data bytes but not the status byte and that is marked with CIN 4.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_maudio_broken_running_status_input(
                              struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep,
                              uint8_t* buffer, int buffer_length)
{
      int i;

      for (i = 0; i + 3 < buffer_length; i += 4)
            if (buffer[i] != 0) {
                  int cable = buffer[i] >> 4;
                  u8 cin = buffer[i] & 0x0f;
                  struct usbmidi_in_port *port = &ep->ports[cable];
                  int length;

                  length = snd_usbmidi_cin_length[cin];
                  if (cin == 0xf && buffer[i + 1] >= 0xf8)
                        ; /* realtime msg: no running status change */
                  else if (cin >= 0x8 && cin <= 0xe)
                        /* channel msg */
                        port->running_status_length = length - 1;
                  else if (cin == 0x4 &&
                         port->running_status_length != 0 &&
                         buffer[i + 1] < 0x80)
                        /* CIN 4 that is not a SysEx */
                        length = port->running_status_length;
                  else
                        /*
                         * All other msgs cannot begin running status.
                         * (A channel msg sent as two or three CIN 0xF
                         * packets could in theory, but this device
                         * doesn't use this format.)
                         */
                        port->running_status_length = 0;
                  snd_usbmidi_input_data(ep, cable, &buffer[i + 1], length);
            }
}

/*
 * CME protocol: like the standard protocol, but SysEx commands are sent as a
 * single USB packet preceded by a 0x0F byte.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_cme_input(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint *ep,
                          uint8_t *buffer, int buffer_length)
{
      if (buffer_length < 2 || (buffer[0] & 0x0f) != 0x0f)
            snd_usbmidi_standard_input(ep, buffer, buffer_length);
      else
            snd_usbmidi_input_data(ep, buffer[0] >> 4,
                               &buffer[1], buffer_length - 1);
}

/*
 * Adds one USB MIDI packet to the output buffer.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_output_standard_packet(struct urb* urb, uint8_t p0,
                                     uint8_t p1, uint8_t p2, uint8_t p3)
{

      uint8_t* buf = (uint8_t*)urb->transfer_buffer + urb->transfer_buffer_length;
      buf[0] = p0;
      buf[1] = p1;
      buf[2] = p2;
      buf[3] = p3;
      urb->transfer_buffer_length += 4;
}

/*
 * Adds one Midiman packet to the output buffer.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_output_midiman_packet(struct urb* urb, uint8_t p0,
                                    uint8_t p1, uint8_t p2, uint8_t p3)
{

      uint8_t* buf = (uint8_t*)urb->transfer_buffer + urb->transfer_buffer_length;
      buf[0] = p1;
      buf[1] = p2;
      buf[2] = p3;
      buf[3] = (p0 & 0xf0) | snd_usbmidi_cin_length[p0 & 0x0f];
      urb->transfer_buffer_length += 4;
}

/*
 * Converts MIDI commands to USB MIDI packets.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_transmit_byte(struct usbmidi_out_port* port,
                              uint8_t b, struct urb* urb)
{
      uint8_t p0 = port->cable;
      void (*output_packet)(struct urb*, uint8_t, uint8_t, uint8_t, uint8_t) =
            port->ep->umidi->usb_protocol_ops->output_packet;

      if (b >= 0xf8) {
            output_packet(urb, p0 | 0x0f, b, 0, 0);
      } else if (b >= 0xf0) {
            switch (b) {
            case 0xf0:
                  port->data[0] = b;
                  port->state = STATE_SYSEX_1;
                  break;
            case 0xf1:
            case 0xf3:
                  port->data[0] = b;
                  port->state = STATE_1PARAM;
                  break;
            case 0xf2:
                  port->data[0] = b;
                  port->state = STATE_2PARAM_1;
                  break;
            case 0xf4:
            case 0xf5:
                  port->state = STATE_UNKNOWN;
                  break;
            case 0xf6:
                  output_packet(urb, p0 | 0x05, 0xf6, 0, 0);
                  port->state = STATE_UNKNOWN;
                  break;
            case 0xf7:
                  switch (port->state) {
                  case STATE_SYSEX_0:
                        output_packet(urb, p0 | 0x05, 0xf7, 0, 0);
                        break;
                  case STATE_SYSEX_1:
                        output_packet(urb, p0 | 0x06, port->data[0], 0xf7, 0);
                        break;
                  case STATE_SYSEX_2:
                        output_packet(urb, p0 | 0x07, port->data[0], port->data[1], 0xf7);
                        break;
                  }
                  port->state = STATE_UNKNOWN;
                  break;
            }
      } else if (b >= 0x80) {
            port->data[0] = b;
            if (b >= 0xc0 && b <= 0xdf)
                  port->state = STATE_1PARAM;
            else
                  port->state = STATE_2PARAM_1;
      } else { /* b < 0x80 */
            switch (port->state) {
            case STATE_1PARAM:
                  if (port->data[0] < 0xf0) {
                        p0 |= port->data[0] >> 4;
                  } else {
                        p0 |= 0x02;
                        port->state = STATE_UNKNOWN;
                  }
                  output_packet(urb, p0, port->data[0], b, 0);
                  break;
            case STATE_2PARAM_1:
                  port->data[1] = b;
                  port->state = STATE_2PARAM_2;
                  break;
            case STATE_2PARAM_2:
                  if (port->data[0] < 0xf0) {
                        p0 |= port->data[0] >> 4;
                        port->state = STATE_2PARAM_1;
                  } else {
                        p0 |= 0x03;
                        port->state = STATE_UNKNOWN;
                  }
                  output_packet(urb, p0, port->data[0], port->data[1], b);
                  break;
            case STATE_SYSEX_0:
                  port->data[0] = b;
                  port->state = STATE_SYSEX_1;
                  break;
            case STATE_SYSEX_1:
                  port->data[1] = b;
                  port->state = STATE_SYSEX_2;
                  break;
            case STATE_SYSEX_2:
                  output_packet(urb, p0 | 0x04, port->data[0], port->data[1], b);
                  port->state = STATE_SYSEX_0;
                  break;
            }
      }
}

static void snd_usbmidi_standard_output(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep,
                              struct urb *urb)
{
      int p;

      /* FIXME: lower-numbered ports can starve higher-numbered ports */
      for (p = 0; p < 0x10; ++p) {
            struct usbmidi_out_port* port = &ep->ports[p];
            if (!port->active)
                  continue;
            while (urb->transfer_buffer_length + 3 < ep->max_transfer) {
                  uint8_t b;
                  if (snd_rawmidi_transmit(port->substream, &b, 1) != 1) {
                        port->active = 0;
                        break;
                  }
                  snd_usbmidi_transmit_byte(port, b, urb);
            }
      }
}

static struct usb_protocol_ops snd_usbmidi_standard_ops = {
      .input = snd_usbmidi_standard_input,
      .output = snd_usbmidi_standard_output,
      .output_packet = snd_usbmidi_output_standard_packet,
};

static struct usb_protocol_ops snd_usbmidi_midiman_ops = {
      .input = snd_usbmidi_midiman_input,
      .output = snd_usbmidi_standard_output,
      .output_packet = snd_usbmidi_output_midiman_packet,
};

static struct usb_protocol_ops snd_usbmidi_maudio_broken_running_status_ops = {
      .input = snd_usbmidi_maudio_broken_running_status_input,
      .output = snd_usbmidi_standard_output,
      .output_packet = snd_usbmidi_output_standard_packet,
};

static struct usb_protocol_ops snd_usbmidi_cme_ops = {
      .input = snd_usbmidi_cme_input,
      .output = snd_usbmidi_standard_output,
      .output_packet = snd_usbmidi_output_standard_packet,
};

/*
 * AKAI MPD16 protocol:
 *
 * For control port (endpoint 1):
 * ==============================
 * One or more chunks consisting of first byte of (0x10 | msg_len) and then a
 * SysEx message (msg_len=9 bytes long).
 *
 * For data port (endpoint 2):
 * ===========================
 * One or more chunks consisting of first byte of (0x20 | msg_len) and then a
 * MIDI message (msg_len bytes long)
 *
 * Messages sent: Active Sense, Note On, Poly Pressure, Control Change.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_akai_input(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint *ep,
                           uint8_t *buffer, int buffer_length)
{
      unsigned int pos = 0;
      unsigned int len = (unsigned int)buffer_length;
      while (pos < len) {
            unsigned int port = (buffer[pos] >> 4) - 1;
            unsigned int msg_len = buffer[pos] & 0x0f;
            pos++;
            if (pos + msg_len <= len && port < 2)
                  snd_usbmidi_input_data(ep, 0, &buffer[pos], msg_len);
            pos += msg_len;
      }
}

#define MAX_AKAI_SYSEX_LEN 9

static void snd_usbmidi_akai_output(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint *ep,
                            struct urb *urb)
{
      uint8_t *msg;
      int pos, end, count, buf_end;
      uint8_t tmp[MAX_AKAI_SYSEX_LEN];
      struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream = ep->ports[0].substream;

      if (!ep->ports[0].active)
            return;

      msg = urb->transfer_buffer + urb->transfer_buffer_length;
      buf_end = ep->max_transfer - MAX_AKAI_SYSEX_LEN - 1;

      /* only try adding more data when there's space for at least 1 SysEx */
      while (urb->transfer_buffer_length < buf_end) {
            count = snd_rawmidi_transmit_peek(substream,
                                      tmp, MAX_AKAI_SYSEX_LEN);
            if (!count) {
                  ep->ports[0].active = 0;
                  return;
            }
            /* try to skip non-SysEx data */
            for (pos = 0; pos < count && tmp[pos] != 0xF0; pos++)
                  ;

            if (pos > 0) {
                  snd_rawmidi_transmit_ack(substream, pos);
                  continue;
            }

            /* look for the start or end marker */
            for (end = 1; end < count && tmp[end] < 0xF0; end++)
                  ;

            /* next SysEx started before the end of current one */
            if (end < count && tmp[end] == 0xF0) {
                  /* it's incomplete - drop it */
                  snd_rawmidi_transmit_ack(substream, end);
                  continue;
            }
            /* SysEx complete */
            if (end < count && tmp[end] == 0xF7) {
                  /* queue it, ack it, and get the next one */
                  count = end + 1;
                  msg[0] = 0x10 | count;
                  memcpy(&msg[1], tmp, count);
                  snd_rawmidi_transmit_ack(substream, count);
                  urb->transfer_buffer_length += count + 1;
                  msg += count + 1;
                  continue;
            }
            /* less than 9 bytes and no end byte - wait for more */
            if (count < MAX_AKAI_SYSEX_LEN) {
                  ep->ports[0].active = 0;
                  return;
            }
            /* 9 bytes and no end marker in sight - malformed, skip it */
            snd_rawmidi_transmit_ack(substream, count);
      }
}

static struct usb_protocol_ops snd_usbmidi_akai_ops = {
      .input = snd_usbmidi_akai_input,
      .output = snd_usbmidi_akai_output,
};

/*
 * Novation USB MIDI protocol: number of data bytes is in the first byte
 * (when receiving) (+1!) or in the second byte (when sending); data begins
 * at the third byte.
 */

static void snd_usbmidi_novation_input(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep,
                               uint8_t* buffer, int buffer_length)
{
      if (buffer_length < 2 || !buffer[0] || buffer_length < buffer[0] + 1)
            return;
      snd_usbmidi_input_data(ep, 0, &buffer[2], buffer[0] - 1);
}

static void snd_usbmidi_novation_output(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep,
                              struct urb *urb)
{
      uint8_t* transfer_buffer;
      int count;

      if (!ep->ports[0].active)
            return;
      transfer_buffer = urb->transfer_buffer;
      count = snd_rawmidi_transmit(ep->ports[0].substream,
                             &transfer_buffer[2],
                             ep->max_transfer - 2);
      if (count < 1) {
            ep->ports[0].active = 0;
            return;
      }
      transfer_buffer[0] = 0;
      transfer_buffer[1] = count;
      urb->transfer_buffer_length = 2 + count;
}

static struct usb_protocol_ops snd_usbmidi_novation_ops = {
      .input = snd_usbmidi_novation_input,
      .output = snd_usbmidi_novation_output,
};

/*
 * "raw" protocol: just move raw MIDI bytes from/to the endpoint
 */

static void snd_usbmidi_raw_input(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep,
                          uint8_t* buffer, int buffer_length)
{
      snd_usbmidi_input_data(ep, 0, buffer, buffer_length);
}

static void snd_usbmidi_raw_output(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep,
                           struct urb *urb)
{
      int count;

      if (!ep->ports[0].active)
            return;
      count = snd_rawmidi_transmit(ep->ports[0].substream,
                             urb->transfer_buffer,
                             ep->max_transfer);
      if (count < 1) {
            ep->ports[0].active = 0;
            return;
      }
      urb->transfer_buffer_length = count;
}

static struct usb_protocol_ops snd_usbmidi_raw_ops = {
      .input = snd_usbmidi_raw_input,
      .output = snd_usbmidi_raw_output,
};

static void snd_usbmidi_us122l_input(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint *ep,
                             uint8_t *buffer, int buffer_length)
{
      if (buffer_length != 9)
            return;
      buffer_length = 8;
      while (buffer_length && buffer[buffer_length - 1] == 0xFD)
            buffer_length--;
      if (buffer_length)
            snd_usbmidi_input_data(ep, 0, buffer, buffer_length);
}

static void snd_usbmidi_us122l_output(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint *ep,
                              struct urb *urb)
{
      int count;

      if (!ep->ports[0].active)
            return;
      switch (snd_usb_get_speed(ep->umidi->dev)) {
      case USB_SPEED_HIGH:
      case USB_SPEED_SUPER:
            count = 1;
            break;
      default:
            count = 2;
      }
      count = snd_rawmidi_transmit(ep->ports[0].substream,
                             urb->transfer_buffer,
                             count);
      if (count < 1) {
            ep->ports[0].active = 0;
            return;
      }

      memset(urb->transfer_buffer + count, 0xFD, ep->max_transfer - count);
      urb->transfer_buffer_length = ep->max_transfer;
}

static struct usb_protocol_ops snd_usbmidi_122l_ops = {
      .input = snd_usbmidi_us122l_input,
      .output = snd_usbmidi_us122l_output,
};

/*
 * Emagic USB MIDI protocol: raw MIDI with "F5 xx" port switching.
 */

static void snd_usbmidi_emagic_init_out(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep)
{
      static const u8 init_data[] = {
            /* initialization magic: "get version" */
            0xf0,
            0x00, 0x20, 0x31, /* Emagic */
            0x64,             /* Unitor8 */
            0x0b,             /* version number request */
            0x00,             /* command version */
            0x00,             /* EEPROM, box 0 */
            0xf7
      };
      send_bulk_static_data(ep, init_data, sizeof(init_data));
      /* while we're at it, pour on more magic */
      send_bulk_static_data(ep, init_data, sizeof(init_data));
}

static void snd_usbmidi_emagic_finish_out(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep)
{
      static const u8 finish_data[] = {
            /* switch to patch mode with last preset */
            0xf0,
            0x00, 0x20, 0x31, /* Emagic */
            0x64,             /* Unitor8 */
            0x10,             /* patch switch command */
            0x00,             /* command version */
            0x7f,             /* to all boxes */
            0x40,             /* last preset in EEPROM */
            0xf7
      };
      send_bulk_static_data(ep, finish_data, sizeof(finish_data));
}

static void snd_usbmidi_emagic_input(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep,
                             uint8_t* buffer, int buffer_length)
{
      int i;

      /* FF indicates end of valid data */
      for (i = 0; i < buffer_length; ++i)
            if (buffer[i] == 0xff) {
                  buffer_length = i;
                  break;
            }

      /* handle F5 at end of last buffer */
      if (ep->seen_f5)
            goto switch_port;

      while (buffer_length > 0) {
            /* determine size of data until next F5 */
            for (i = 0; i < buffer_length; ++i)
                  if (buffer[i] == 0xf5)
                        break;
            snd_usbmidi_input_data(ep, ep->current_port, buffer, i);
            buffer += i;
            buffer_length -= i;

            if (buffer_length <= 0)
                  break;
            /* assert(buffer[0] == 0xf5); */
            ep->seen_f5 = 1;
            ++buffer;
            --buffer_length;

      switch_port:
            if (buffer_length <= 0)
                  break;
            if (buffer[0] < 0x80) {
                  ep->current_port = (buffer[0] - 1) & 15;
                  ++buffer;
                  --buffer_length;
            }
            ep->seen_f5 = 0;
      }
}

static void snd_usbmidi_emagic_output(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep,
                              struct urb *urb)
{
      int port0 = ep->current_port;
      uint8_t* buf = urb->transfer_buffer;
      int buf_free = ep->max_transfer;
      int length, i;

      for (i = 0; i < 0x10; ++i) {
            /* round-robin, starting at the last current port */
            int portnum = (port0 + i) & 15;
            struct usbmidi_out_port* port = &ep->ports[portnum];

            if (!port->active)
                  continue;
            if (snd_rawmidi_transmit_peek(port->substream, buf, 1) != 1) {
                  port->active = 0;
                  continue;
            }

            if (portnum != ep->current_port) {
                  if (buf_free < 2)
                        break;
                  ep->current_port = portnum;
                  buf[0] = 0xf5;
                  buf[1] = (portnum + 1) & 15;
                  buf += 2;
                  buf_free -= 2;
            }

            if (buf_free < 1)
                  break;
            length = snd_rawmidi_transmit(port->substream, buf, buf_free);
            if (length > 0) {
                  buf += length;
                  buf_free -= length;
                  if (buf_free < 1)
                        break;
            }
      }
      if (buf_free < ep->max_transfer && buf_free > 0) {
            *buf = 0xff;
            --buf_free;
      }
      urb->transfer_buffer_length = ep->max_transfer - buf_free;
}

static struct usb_protocol_ops snd_usbmidi_emagic_ops = {
      .input = snd_usbmidi_emagic_input,
      .output = snd_usbmidi_emagic_output,
      .init_out_endpoint = snd_usbmidi_emagic_init_out,
      .finish_out_endpoint = snd_usbmidi_emagic_finish_out,
};


static void update_roland_altsetting(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi)
{
      struct usb_interface *intf;
      struct usb_host_interface *hostif;
      struct usb_interface_descriptor *intfd;
      int is_light_load;

      intf = umidi->iface;
      is_light_load = intf->cur_altsetting != intf->altsetting;
      if (umidi->roland_load_ctl->private_value == is_light_load)
            return;
      hostif = &intf->altsetting[umidi->roland_load_ctl->private_value];
      intfd = get_iface_desc(hostif);
      snd_usbmidi_input_stop(&umidi->list);
      usb_set_interface(umidi->dev, intfd->bInterfaceNumber,
                    intfd->bAlternateSetting);
      snd_usbmidi_input_start(&umidi->list);
}

static void substream_open(struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream, int open)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi = substream->rmidi->private_data;
      struct snd_kcontrol *ctl;

      mutex_lock(&umidi->mutex);
      if (open) {
            if (umidi->opened++ == 0 && umidi->roland_load_ctl) {
                  ctl = umidi->roland_load_ctl;
                  ctl->vd[0].access |= SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_ACCESS_INACTIVE;
                  snd_ctl_notify(umidi->card,
                               SNDRV_CTL_EVENT_MASK_INFO, &ctl->id);
                  update_roland_altsetting(umidi);
            }
      } else {
            if (--umidi->opened == 0 && umidi->roland_load_ctl) {
                  ctl = umidi->roland_load_ctl;
                  ctl->vd[0].access &= ~SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_ACCESS_INACTIVE;
                  snd_ctl_notify(umidi->card,
                               SNDRV_CTL_EVENT_MASK_INFO, &ctl->id);
            }
      }
      mutex_unlock(&umidi->mutex);
}

static int snd_usbmidi_output_open(struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi = substream->rmidi->private_data;
      struct usbmidi_out_port* port = NULL;
      int i, j;

      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i)
            if (umidi->endpoints[i].out)
                  for (j = 0; j < 0x10; ++j)
                        if (umidi->endpoints[i].out->ports[j].substream == substream) {
                              port = &umidi->endpoints[i].out->ports[j];
                              break;
                        }
      if (!port) {
            snd_BUG();
            return -ENXIO;
      }
      substream->runtime->private_data = port;
      port->state = STATE_UNKNOWN;
      substream_open(substream, 1);
      return 0;
}

static int snd_usbmidi_output_close(struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream)
{
      substream_open(substream, 0);
      return 0;
}

static void snd_usbmidi_output_trigger(struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream, int up)
{
      struct usbmidi_out_port* port = (struct usbmidi_out_port*)substream->runtime->private_data;

      port->active = up;
      if (up) {
            if (port->ep->umidi->disconnected) {
                  /* gobble up remaining bytes to prevent wait in
                   * snd_rawmidi_drain_output */
                  while (!snd_rawmidi_transmit_empty(substream))
                        snd_rawmidi_transmit_ack(substream, 1);
                  return;
            }
            tasklet_schedule(&port->ep->tasklet);
      }
}

static void snd_usbmidi_output_drain(struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream)
{
      struct usbmidi_out_port* port = substream->runtime->private_data;
      struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint *ep = port->ep;
      unsigned int drain_urbs;
      DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
      long timeout = msecs_to_jiffies(50);

      if (ep->umidi->disconnected)
            return;
      /*
       * The substream buffer is empty, but some data might still be in the
       * currently active URBs, so we have to wait for those to complete.
       */
      spin_lock_irq(&ep->buffer_lock);
      drain_urbs = ep->active_urbs;
      if (drain_urbs) {
            ep->drain_urbs |= drain_urbs;
            do {
                  prepare_to_wait(&ep->drain_wait, &wait,
                              TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
                  spin_unlock_irq(&ep->buffer_lock);
                  timeout = schedule_timeout(timeout);
                  spin_lock_irq(&ep->buffer_lock);
                  drain_urbs &= ep->drain_urbs;
            } while (drain_urbs && timeout);
            finish_wait(&ep->drain_wait, &wait);
      }
      spin_unlock_irq(&ep->buffer_lock);
}

static int snd_usbmidi_input_open(struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream)
{
      substream_open(substream, 1);
      return 0;
}

static int snd_usbmidi_input_close(struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream)
{
      substream_open(substream, 0);
      return 0;
}

static void snd_usbmidi_input_trigger(struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream, int up)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi = substream->rmidi->private_data;

      if (up)
            set_bit(substream->number, &umidi->input_triggered);
      else
            clear_bit(substream->number, &umidi->input_triggered);
}

static struct snd_rawmidi_ops snd_usbmidi_output_ops = {
      .open = snd_usbmidi_output_open,
      .close = snd_usbmidi_output_close,
      .trigger = snd_usbmidi_output_trigger,
      .drain = snd_usbmidi_output_drain,
};

static struct snd_rawmidi_ops snd_usbmidi_input_ops = {
      .open = snd_usbmidi_input_open,
      .close = snd_usbmidi_input_close,
      .trigger = snd_usbmidi_input_trigger
};

static void free_urb_and_buffer(struct snd_usb_midi *umidi, struct urb *urb,
                        unsigned int buffer_length)
{
      usb_free_coherent(umidi->dev, buffer_length,
                    urb->transfer_buffer, urb->transfer_dma);
      usb_free_urb(urb);
}

/*
 * Frees an input endpoint.
 * May be called when ep hasn't been initialized completely.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_in_endpoint_delete(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep)
{
      unsigned int i;

      for (i = 0; i < INPUT_URBS; ++i)
            if (ep->urbs[i])
                  free_urb_and_buffer(ep->umidi, ep->urbs[i],
                                  ep->urbs[i]->transfer_buffer_length);
      kfree(ep);
}

/*
 * Creates an input endpoint.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_in_endpoint_create(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                                struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info* ep_info,
                                struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint* rep)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep;
      void* buffer;
      unsigned int pipe;
      int length;
      unsigned int i;

      rep->in = NULL;
      ep = kzalloc(sizeof(*ep), GFP_KERNEL);
      if (!ep)
            return -ENOMEM;
      ep->umidi = umidi;

      for (i = 0; i < INPUT_URBS; ++i) {
            ep->urbs[i] = usb_alloc_urb(0, GFP_KERNEL);
            if (!ep->urbs[i]) {
                  snd_usbmidi_in_endpoint_delete(ep);
                  return -ENOMEM;
            }
      }
      if (ep_info->in_interval)
            pipe = usb_rcvintpipe(umidi->dev, ep_info->in_ep);
      else
            pipe = usb_rcvbulkpipe(umidi->dev, ep_info->in_ep);
      length = usb_maxpacket(umidi->dev, pipe, 0);
      for (i = 0; i < INPUT_URBS; ++i) {
            buffer = usb_alloc_coherent(umidi->dev, length, GFP_KERNEL,
                                  &ep->urbs[i]->transfer_dma);
            if (!buffer) {
                  snd_usbmidi_in_endpoint_delete(ep);
                  return -ENOMEM;
            }
            if (ep_info->in_interval)
                  usb_fill_int_urb(ep->urbs[i], umidi->dev,
                               pipe, buffer, length,
                               snd_usbmidi_in_urb_complete,
                               ep, ep_info->in_interval);
            else
                  usb_fill_bulk_urb(ep->urbs[i], umidi->dev,
                                pipe, buffer, length,
                                snd_usbmidi_in_urb_complete, ep);
            ep->urbs[i]->transfer_flags = URB_NO_TRANSFER_DMA_MAP;
      }

      rep->in = ep;
      return 0;
}

/*
 * Frees an output endpoint.
 * May be called when ep hasn't been initialized completely.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_clear(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint *ep)
{
      unsigned int i;

      for (i = 0; i < OUTPUT_URBS; ++i)
            if (ep->urbs[i].urb) {
                  free_urb_and_buffer(ep->umidi, ep->urbs[i].urb,
                                  ep->max_transfer);
                  ep->urbs[i].urb = NULL;
            }
}

static void snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_delete(struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint *ep)
{
      snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_clear(ep);
      kfree(ep);
}

/*
 * Creates an output endpoint, and initializes output ports.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_create(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                                 struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info* ep_info,
                                 struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint* rep)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi_out_endpoint* ep;
      unsigned int i;
      unsigned int pipe;
      void* buffer;

      rep->out = NULL;
      ep = kzalloc(sizeof(*ep), GFP_KERNEL);
      if (!ep)
            return -ENOMEM;
      ep->umidi = umidi;

      for (i = 0; i < OUTPUT_URBS; ++i) {
            ep->urbs[i].urb = usb_alloc_urb(0, GFP_KERNEL);
            if (!ep->urbs[i].urb) {
                  snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_delete(ep);
                  return -ENOMEM;
            }
            ep->urbs[i].ep = ep;
      }
      if (ep_info->out_interval)
            pipe = usb_sndintpipe(umidi->dev, ep_info->out_ep);
      else
            pipe = usb_sndbulkpipe(umidi->dev, ep_info->out_ep);
      switch (umidi->usb_id) {
      default:
            ep->max_transfer = usb_maxpacket(umidi->dev, pipe, 1);
            break;
            /*
             * Various chips declare a packet size larger than 4 bytes, but
             * do not actually work with larger packets:
             */
      case USB_ID(0x0a92, 0x1020): /* ESI M4U */
      case USB_ID(0x1430, 0x474b): /* RedOctane GH MIDI INTERFACE */
      case USB_ID(0x15ca, 0x0101): /* Textech USB Midi Cable */
      case USB_ID(0x15ca, 0x1806): /* Textech USB Midi Cable */
      case USB_ID(0x1a86, 0x752d): /* QinHeng CH345 "USB2.0-MIDI" */
            ep->max_transfer = 4;
            break;
            /*
             * Some devices only work with 9 bytes packet size:
             */
      case USB_ID(0x0644, 0x800E): /* Tascam US-122L */
      case USB_ID(0x0644, 0x800F): /* Tascam US-144 */
            ep->max_transfer = 9;
            break;
      }
      for (i = 0; i < OUTPUT_URBS; ++i) {
            buffer = usb_alloc_coherent(umidi->dev,
                                  ep->max_transfer, GFP_KERNEL,
                                  &ep->urbs[i].urb->transfer_dma);
            if (!buffer) {
                  snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_delete(ep);
                  return -ENOMEM;
            }
            if (ep_info->out_interval)
                  usb_fill_int_urb(ep->urbs[i].urb, umidi->dev,
                               pipe, buffer, ep->max_transfer,
                               snd_usbmidi_out_urb_complete,
                               &ep->urbs[i], ep_info->out_interval);
            else
                  usb_fill_bulk_urb(ep->urbs[i].urb, umidi->dev,
                                pipe, buffer, ep->max_transfer,
                                snd_usbmidi_out_urb_complete,
                                &ep->urbs[i]);
            ep->urbs[i].urb->transfer_flags = URB_NO_TRANSFER_DMA_MAP;
      }

      spin_lock_init(&ep->buffer_lock);
      tasklet_init(&ep->tasklet, snd_usbmidi_out_tasklet, (unsigned long)ep);
      init_waitqueue_head(&ep->drain_wait);

      for (i = 0; i < 0x10; ++i)
            if (ep_info->out_cables & (1 << i)) {
                  ep->ports[i].ep = ep;
                  ep->ports[i].cable = i << 4;
            }

      if (umidi->usb_protocol_ops->init_out_endpoint)
            umidi->usb_protocol_ops->init_out_endpoint(ep);

      rep->out = ep;
      return 0;
}

/*
 * Frees everything.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_free(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi)
{
      int i;

      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i) {
            struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint* ep = &umidi->endpoints[i];
            if (ep->out)
                  snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_delete(ep->out);
            if (ep->in)
                  snd_usbmidi_in_endpoint_delete(ep->in);
      }
      mutex_destroy(&umidi->mutex);
      kfree(umidi);
}

/*
 * Unlinks all URBs (must be done before the usb_device is deleted).
 */
void snd_usbmidi_disconnect(struct list_head* p)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi;
      unsigned int i, j;

      umidi = list_entry(p, struct snd_usb_midi, list);
      /*
       * an URB's completion handler may start the timer and
       * a timer may submit an URB. To reliably break the cycle
       * a flag under lock must be used
       */
      spin_lock_irq(&umidi->disc_lock);
      umidi->disconnected = 1;
      spin_unlock_irq(&umidi->disc_lock);
      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i) {
            struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint* ep = &umidi->endpoints[i];
            if (ep->out)
                  tasklet_kill(&ep->out->tasklet);
            if (ep->out) {
                  for (j = 0; j < OUTPUT_URBS; ++j)
                        usb_kill_urb(ep->out->urbs[j].urb);
                  if (umidi->usb_protocol_ops->finish_out_endpoint)
                        umidi->usb_protocol_ops->finish_out_endpoint(ep->out);
                  ep->out->active_urbs = 0;
                  if (ep->out->drain_urbs) {
                        ep->out->drain_urbs = 0;
                        wake_up(&ep->out->drain_wait);
                  }
            }
            if (ep->in)
                  for (j = 0; j < INPUT_URBS; ++j)
                        usb_kill_urb(ep->in->urbs[j]);
            /* free endpoints here; later call can result in Oops */
            if (ep->out)
                  snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_clear(ep->out);
            if (ep->in) {
                  snd_usbmidi_in_endpoint_delete(ep->in);
                  ep->in = NULL;
            }
      }
      del_timer_sync(&umidi->error_timer);
}

static void snd_usbmidi_rawmidi_free(struct snd_rawmidi *rmidi)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi = rmidi->private_data;
      snd_usbmidi_free(umidi);
}

static struct snd_rawmidi_substream *snd_usbmidi_find_substream(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                                                int stream, int number)
{
      struct list_head* list;

      list_for_each(list, &umidi->rmidi->streams[stream].substreams) {
            struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream = list_entry(list, struct snd_rawmidi_substream, list);
            if (substream->number == number)
                  return substream;
      }
      return NULL;
}

/*
 * This list specifies names for ports that do not fit into the standard
 * "(product) MIDI (n)" schema because they aren't external MIDI ports,
 * such as internal control or synthesizer ports.
 */
01432 static struct port_info {
      u32 id;
      short int port;
      short int voices;
      const char *name;
      unsigned int seq_flags;
} snd_usbmidi_port_info[] = {
#define PORT_INFO(vendor, product, num, name_, voices_, flags) \
      { .id = USB_ID(vendor, product), \
        .port = num, .voices = voices_, \
        .name = name_, .seq_flags = flags }
#define EXTERNAL_PORT(vendor, product, num, name) \
      PORT_INFO(vendor, product, num, name, 0, \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GENERIC | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_HARDWARE | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_PORT)
#define CONTROL_PORT(vendor, product, num, name) \
      PORT_INFO(vendor, product, num, name, 0, \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GENERIC | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_HARDWARE)
#define ROLAND_SYNTH_PORT(vendor, product, num, name, voices) \
      PORT_INFO(vendor, product, num, name, voices, \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GENERIC | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GM | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GM2 | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GS | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_XG | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_HARDWARE | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_SYNTHESIZER)
#define SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(vendor, product, num, name, voices) \
      PORT_INFO(vendor, product, num, name, voices, \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GENERIC | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GM | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GM2 | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GS | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_XG | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_MT32 | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_HARDWARE | \
              SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_SYNTHESIZER)
      /* Roland UA-100 */
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0000, 2, "%s Control"),
      /* Roland SC-8850 */
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x0003, 0, "%s Part A", 128),
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x0003, 1, "%s Part B", 128),
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x0003, 2, "%s Part C", 128),
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x0003, 3, "%s Part D", 128),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0003, 4, "%s MIDI 1"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0003, 5, "%s MIDI 2"),
      /* Roland U-8 */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0004, 0, "%s MIDI"),
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0004, 1, "%s Control"),
      /* Roland SC-8820 */
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x0007, 0, "%s Part A", 64),
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x0007, 1, "%s Part B", 64),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0007, 2, "%s MIDI"),
      /* Roland SK-500 */
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x000b, 0, "%s Part A", 64),
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x000b, 1, "%s Part B", 64),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x000b, 2, "%s MIDI"),
      /* Roland SC-D70 */
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x000c, 0, "%s Part A", 64),
      SOUNDCANVAS_PORT(0x0582, 0x000c, 1, "%s Part B", 64),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x000c, 2, "%s MIDI"),
      /* Edirol UM-880 */
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0014, 8, "%s Control"),
      /* Edirol SD-90 */
      ROLAND_SYNTH_PORT(0x0582, 0x0016, 0, "%s Part A", 128),
      ROLAND_SYNTH_PORT(0x0582, 0x0016, 1, "%s Part B", 128),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0016, 2, "%s MIDI 1"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0016, 3, "%s MIDI 2"),
      /* Edirol UM-550 */
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0023, 5, "%s Control"),
      /* Edirol SD-20 */
      ROLAND_SYNTH_PORT(0x0582, 0x0027, 0, "%s Part A", 64),
      ROLAND_SYNTH_PORT(0x0582, 0x0027, 1, "%s Part B", 64),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0027, 2, "%s MIDI"),
      /* Edirol SD-80 */
      ROLAND_SYNTH_PORT(0x0582, 0x0029, 0, "%s Part A", 128),
      ROLAND_SYNTH_PORT(0x0582, 0x0029, 1, "%s Part B", 128),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0029, 2, "%s MIDI 1"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0029, 3, "%s MIDI 2"),
      /* Edirol UA-700 */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x002b, 0, "%s MIDI"),
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0582, 0x002b, 1, "%s Control"),
      /* Roland VariOS */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x002f, 0, "%s MIDI"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x002f, 1, "%s External MIDI"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x002f, 2, "%s Sync"),
      /* Edirol PCR */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0033, 0, "%s MIDI"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0033, 1, "%s 1"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0033, 2, "%s 2"),
      /* BOSS GS-10 */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x003b, 0, "%s MIDI"),
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0582, 0x003b, 1, "%s Control"),
      /* Edirol UA-1000 */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0044, 0, "%s MIDI"),
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0044, 1, "%s Control"),
      /* Edirol UR-80 */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0048, 0, "%s MIDI"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0048, 1, "%s 1"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x0048, 2, "%s 2"),
      /* Edirol PCR-A */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x004d, 0, "%s MIDI"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x004d, 1, "%s 1"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x0582, 0x004d, 2, "%s 2"),
      /* Edirol UM-3EX */
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0582, 0x009a, 3, "%s Control"),
      /* M-Audio MidiSport 8x8 */
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0763, 0x1031, 8, "%s Control"),
      CONTROL_PORT(0x0763, 0x1033, 8, "%s Control"),
      /* MOTU Fastlane */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x07fd, 0x0001, 0, "%s MIDI A"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x07fd, 0x0001, 1, "%s MIDI B"),
      /* Emagic Unitor8/AMT8/MT4 */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x086a, 0x0001, 8, "%s Broadcast"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x086a, 0x0002, 8, "%s Broadcast"),
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x086a, 0x0003, 4, "%s Broadcast"),
      /* Akai MPD16 */
      CONTROL_PORT(0x09e8, 0x0062, 0, "%s Control"),
      PORT_INFO(0x09e8, 0x0062, 1, "%s MIDI", 0,
            SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GENERIC |
            SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_HARDWARE),
      /* Access Music Virus TI */
      EXTERNAL_PORT(0x133e, 0x0815, 0, "%s MIDI"),
      PORT_INFO(0x133e, 0x0815, 1, "%s Synth", 0,
            SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_MIDI_GENERIC |
            SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_HARDWARE |
            SNDRV_SEQ_PORT_TYPE_SYNTHESIZER),
};

static struct port_info *find_port_info(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi, int number)
{
      int i;

      for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(snd_usbmidi_port_info); ++i) {
            if (snd_usbmidi_port_info[i].id == umidi->usb_id &&
                snd_usbmidi_port_info[i].port == number)
                  return &snd_usbmidi_port_info[i];
      }
      return NULL;
}

static void snd_usbmidi_get_port_info(struct snd_rawmidi *rmidi, int number,
                              struct snd_seq_port_info *seq_port_info)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi *umidi = rmidi->private_data;
      struct port_info *port_info;

      /* TODO: read port flags from descriptors */
      port_info = find_port_info(umidi, number);
      if (port_info) {
            seq_port_info->type = port_info->seq_flags;
            seq_port_info->midi_voices = port_info->voices;
      }
}

static void snd_usbmidi_init_substream(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                               int stream, int number,
                               struct snd_rawmidi_substream ** rsubstream)
{
      struct port_info *port_info;
      const char *name_format;

      struct snd_rawmidi_substream *substream = snd_usbmidi_find_substream(umidi, stream, number);
      if (!substream) {
            snd_printd(KERN_ERR "substream %d:%d not found\n", stream, number);
            return;
      }

      /* TODO: read port name from jack descriptor */
      port_info = find_port_info(umidi, number);
      name_format = port_info ? port_info->name : "%s MIDI %d";
      snprintf(substream->name, sizeof(substream->name),
             name_format, umidi->card->shortname, number + 1);

      *rsubstream = substream;
}

/*
 * Creates the endpoints and their ports.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_create_endpoints(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                              struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info* endpoints)
{
      int i, j, err;
      int out_ports = 0, in_ports = 0;

      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i) {
            if (endpoints[i].out_cables) {
                  err = snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_create(umidi, &endpoints[i],
                                                &umidi->endpoints[i]);
                  if (err < 0)
                        return err;
            }
            if (endpoints[i].in_cables) {
                  err = snd_usbmidi_in_endpoint_create(umidi, &endpoints[i],
                                               &umidi->endpoints[i]);
                  if (err < 0)
                        return err;
            }

            for (j = 0; j < 0x10; ++j) {
                  if (endpoints[i].out_cables & (1 << j)) {
                        snd_usbmidi_init_substream(umidi, SNDRV_RAWMIDI_STREAM_OUTPUT, out_ports,
                                             &umidi->endpoints[i].out->ports[j].substream);
                        ++out_ports;
                  }
                  if (endpoints[i].in_cables & (1 << j)) {
                        snd_usbmidi_init_substream(umidi, SNDRV_RAWMIDI_STREAM_INPUT, in_ports,
                                             &umidi->endpoints[i].in->ports[j].substream);
                        ++in_ports;
                  }
            }
      }
      snd_printdd(KERN_INFO "created %d output and %d input ports\n",
                out_ports, in_ports);
      return 0;
}

/*
 * Returns MIDIStreaming device capabilities.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_get_ms_info(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                           struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info* endpoints)
{
      struct usb_interface* intf;
      struct usb_host_interface *hostif;
      struct usb_interface_descriptor* intfd;
      struct usb_ms_header_descriptor* ms_header;
      struct usb_host_endpoint *hostep;
      struct usb_endpoint_descriptor* ep;
      struct usb_ms_endpoint_descriptor* ms_ep;
      int i, epidx;

      intf = umidi->iface;
      if (!intf)
            return -ENXIO;
      hostif = &intf->altsetting[0];
      intfd = get_iface_desc(hostif);
      ms_header = (struct usb_ms_header_descriptor*)hostif->extra;
      if (hostif->extralen >= 7 &&
          ms_header->bLength >= 7 &&
          ms_header->bDescriptorType == USB_DT_CS_INTERFACE &&
          ms_header->bDescriptorSubtype == UAC_HEADER)
            snd_printdd(KERN_INFO "MIDIStreaming version %02x.%02x\n",
                      ms_header->bcdMSC[1], ms_header->bcdMSC[0]);
      else
            snd_printk(KERN_WARNING "MIDIStreaming interface descriptor not found\n");

      epidx = 0;
      for (i = 0; i < intfd->bNumEndpoints; ++i) {
            hostep = &hostif->endpoint[i];
            ep = get_ep_desc(hostep);
            if (!usb_endpoint_xfer_bulk(ep) && !usb_endpoint_xfer_int(ep))
                  continue;
            ms_ep = (struct usb_ms_endpoint_descriptor*)hostep->extra;
            if (hostep->extralen < 4 ||
                ms_ep->bLength < 4 ||
                ms_ep->bDescriptorType != USB_DT_CS_ENDPOINT ||
                ms_ep->bDescriptorSubtype != UAC_MS_GENERAL)
                  continue;
            if (usb_endpoint_dir_out(ep)) {
                  if (endpoints[epidx].out_ep) {
                        if (++epidx >= MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS) {
                              snd_printk(KERN_WARNING "too many endpoints\n");
                              break;
                        }
                  }
                  endpoints[epidx].out_ep = usb_endpoint_num(ep);
                  if (usb_endpoint_xfer_int(ep))
                        endpoints[epidx].out_interval = ep->bInterval;
                  else if (snd_usb_get_speed(umidi->dev) == USB_SPEED_LOW)
                        /*
                         * Low speed bulk transfers don't exist, so
                         * force interrupt transfers for devices like
                         * ESI MIDI Mate that try to use them anyway.
                         */
                        endpoints[epidx].out_interval = 1;
                  endpoints[epidx].out_cables = (1 << ms_ep->bNumEmbMIDIJack) - 1;
                  snd_printdd(KERN_INFO "EP %02X: %d jack(s)\n",
                            ep->bEndpointAddress, ms_ep->bNumEmbMIDIJack);
            } else {
                  if (endpoints[epidx].in_ep) {
                        if (++epidx >= MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS) {
                              snd_printk(KERN_WARNING "too many endpoints\n");
                              break;
                        }
                  }
                  endpoints[epidx].in_ep = usb_endpoint_num(ep);
                  if (usb_endpoint_xfer_int(ep))
                        endpoints[epidx].in_interval = ep->bInterval;
                  else if (snd_usb_get_speed(umidi->dev) == USB_SPEED_LOW)
                        endpoints[epidx].in_interval = 1;
                  endpoints[epidx].in_cables = (1 << ms_ep->bNumEmbMIDIJack) - 1;
                  snd_printdd(KERN_INFO "EP %02X: %d jack(s)\n",
                            ep->bEndpointAddress, ms_ep->bNumEmbMIDIJack);
            }
      }
      return 0;
}

static int roland_load_info(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
                      struct snd_ctl_elem_info *info)
{
      static const char *const names[] = { "High Load", "Light Load" };

      return snd_ctl_enum_info(info, 1, 2, names);
}

static int roland_load_get(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
                     struct snd_ctl_elem_value *value)
{
      value->value.enumerated.item[0] = kcontrol->private_value;
      return 0;
}

static int roland_load_put(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
                     struct snd_ctl_elem_value *value)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi = kcontrol->private_data;
      int changed;

      if (value->value.enumerated.item[0] > 1)
            return -EINVAL;
      mutex_lock(&umidi->mutex);
      changed = value->value.enumerated.item[0] != kcontrol->private_value;
      if (changed)
            kcontrol->private_value = value->value.enumerated.item[0];
      mutex_unlock(&umidi->mutex);
      return changed;
}

static struct snd_kcontrol_new roland_load_ctl = {
      .iface = SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_IFACE_MIXER,
      .name = "MIDI Input Mode",
      .info = roland_load_info,
      .get = roland_load_get,
      .put = roland_load_put,
      .private_value = 1,
};

/*
 * On Roland devices, use the second alternate setting to be able to use
 * the interrupt input endpoint.
 */
static void snd_usbmidi_switch_roland_altsetting(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi)
{
      struct usb_interface* intf;
      struct usb_host_interface *hostif;
      struct usb_interface_descriptor* intfd;

      intf = umidi->iface;
      if (!intf || intf->num_altsetting != 2)
            return;

      hostif = &intf->altsetting[1];
      intfd = get_iface_desc(hostif);
      if (intfd->bNumEndpoints != 2 ||
          (get_endpoint(hostif, 0)->bmAttributes & USB_ENDPOINT_XFERTYPE_MASK) != USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK ||
          (get_endpoint(hostif, 1)->bmAttributes & USB_ENDPOINT_XFERTYPE_MASK) != USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_INT)
            return;

      snd_printdd(KERN_INFO "switching to altsetting %d with int ep\n",
                intfd->bAlternateSetting);
      usb_set_interface(umidi->dev, intfd->bInterfaceNumber,
                    intfd->bAlternateSetting);

      umidi->roland_load_ctl = snd_ctl_new1(&roland_load_ctl, umidi);
      if (snd_ctl_add(umidi->card, umidi->roland_load_ctl) < 0)
            umidi->roland_load_ctl = NULL;
}

/*
 * Try to find any usable endpoints in the interface.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_detect_endpoints(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                              struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info* endpoint,
                              int max_endpoints)
{
      struct usb_interface* intf;
      struct usb_host_interface *hostif;
      struct usb_interface_descriptor* intfd;
      struct usb_endpoint_descriptor* epd;
      int i, out_eps = 0, in_eps = 0;

      if (USB_ID_VENDOR(umidi->usb_id) == 0x0582)
            snd_usbmidi_switch_roland_altsetting(umidi);

      if (endpoint[0].out_ep || endpoint[0].in_ep)
            return 0;

      intf = umidi->iface;
      if (!intf || intf->num_altsetting < 1)
            return -ENOENT;
      hostif = intf->cur_altsetting;
      intfd = get_iface_desc(hostif);

      for (i = 0; i < intfd->bNumEndpoints; ++i) {
            epd = get_endpoint(hostif, i);
            if (!usb_endpoint_xfer_bulk(epd) &&
                !usb_endpoint_xfer_int(epd))
                  continue;
            if (out_eps < max_endpoints &&
                usb_endpoint_dir_out(epd)) {
                  endpoint[out_eps].out_ep = usb_endpoint_num(epd);
                  if (usb_endpoint_xfer_int(epd))
                        endpoint[out_eps].out_interval = epd->bInterval;
                  ++out_eps;
            }
            if (in_eps < max_endpoints &&
                usb_endpoint_dir_in(epd)) {
                  endpoint[in_eps].in_ep = usb_endpoint_num(epd);
                  if (usb_endpoint_xfer_int(epd))
                        endpoint[in_eps].in_interval = epd->bInterval;
                  ++in_eps;
            }
      }
      return (out_eps || in_eps) ? 0 : -ENOENT;
}

/*
 * Detects the endpoints for one-port-per-endpoint protocols.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_detect_per_port_endpoints(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                                     struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info* endpoints)
{
      int err, i;

      err = snd_usbmidi_detect_endpoints(umidi, endpoints, MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS);
      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i) {
            if (endpoints[i].out_ep)
                  endpoints[i].out_cables = 0x0001;
            if (endpoints[i].in_ep)
                  endpoints[i].in_cables = 0x0001;
      }
      return err;
}

/*
 * Detects the endpoints and ports of Yamaha devices.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_detect_yamaha(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                             struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info* endpoint)
{
      struct usb_interface* intf;
      struct usb_host_interface *hostif;
      struct usb_interface_descriptor* intfd;
      uint8_t* cs_desc;

      intf = umidi->iface;
      if (!intf)
            return -ENOENT;
      hostif = intf->altsetting;
      intfd = get_iface_desc(hostif);
      if (intfd->bNumEndpoints < 1)
            return -ENOENT;

      /*
       * For each port there is one MIDI_IN/OUT_JACK descriptor, not
       * necessarily with any useful contents.  So simply count 'em.
       */
      for (cs_desc = hostif->extra;
           cs_desc < hostif->extra + hostif->extralen && cs_desc[0] >= 2;
           cs_desc += cs_desc[0]) {
            if (cs_desc[1] == USB_DT_CS_INTERFACE) {
                  if (cs_desc[2] == UAC_MIDI_IN_JACK)
                        endpoint->in_cables = (endpoint->in_cables << 1) | 1;
                  else if (cs_desc[2] == UAC_MIDI_OUT_JACK)
                        endpoint->out_cables = (endpoint->out_cables << 1) | 1;
            }
      }
      if (!endpoint->in_cables && !endpoint->out_cables)
            return -ENOENT;

      return snd_usbmidi_detect_endpoints(umidi, endpoint, 1);
}

/*
 * Creates the endpoints and their ports for Midiman devices.
 */
static int snd_usbmidi_create_endpoints_midiman(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                                    struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info* endpoint)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info ep_info;
      struct usb_interface* intf;
      struct usb_host_interface *hostif;
      struct usb_interface_descriptor* intfd;
      struct usb_endpoint_descriptor* epd;
      int cable, err;

      intf = umidi->iface;
      if (!intf)
            return -ENOENT;
      hostif = intf->altsetting;
      intfd = get_iface_desc(hostif);
      /*
       * The various MidiSport devices have more or less random endpoint
       * numbers, so we have to identify the endpoints by their index in
       * the descriptor array, like the driver for that other OS does.
       *
       * There is one interrupt input endpoint for all input ports, one
       * bulk output endpoint for even-numbered ports, and one for odd-
       * numbered ports.  Both bulk output endpoints have corresponding
       * input bulk endpoints (at indices 1 and 3) which aren't used.
       */
      if (intfd->bNumEndpoints < (endpoint->out_cables > 0x0001 ? 5 : 3)) {
            snd_printdd(KERN_ERR "not enough endpoints\n");
            return -ENOENT;
      }

      epd = get_endpoint(hostif, 0);
      if (!usb_endpoint_dir_in(epd) || !usb_endpoint_xfer_int(epd)) {
            snd_printdd(KERN_ERR "endpoint[0] isn't interrupt\n");
            return -ENXIO;
      }
      epd = get_endpoint(hostif, 2);
      if (!usb_endpoint_dir_out(epd) || !usb_endpoint_xfer_bulk(epd)) {
            snd_printdd(KERN_ERR "endpoint[2] isn't bulk output\n");
            return -ENXIO;
      }
      if (endpoint->out_cables > 0x0001) {
            epd = get_endpoint(hostif, 4);
            if (!usb_endpoint_dir_out(epd) ||
                !usb_endpoint_xfer_bulk(epd)) {
                  snd_printdd(KERN_ERR "endpoint[4] isn't bulk output\n");
                  return -ENXIO;
            }
      }

      ep_info.out_ep = get_endpoint(hostif, 2)->bEndpointAddress & USB_ENDPOINT_NUMBER_MASK;
      ep_info.out_interval = 0;
      ep_info.out_cables = endpoint->out_cables & 0x5555;
      err = snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_create(umidi, &ep_info, &umidi->endpoints[0]);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;

      ep_info.in_ep = get_endpoint(hostif, 0)->bEndpointAddress & USB_ENDPOINT_NUMBER_MASK;
      ep_info.in_interval = get_endpoint(hostif, 0)->bInterval;
      ep_info.in_cables = endpoint->in_cables;
      err = snd_usbmidi_in_endpoint_create(umidi, &ep_info, &umidi->endpoints[0]);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;

      if (endpoint->out_cables > 0x0001) {
            ep_info.out_ep = get_endpoint(hostif, 4)->bEndpointAddress & USB_ENDPOINT_NUMBER_MASK;
            ep_info.out_cables = endpoint->out_cables & 0xaaaa;
            err = snd_usbmidi_out_endpoint_create(umidi, &ep_info, &umidi->endpoints[1]);
            if (err < 0)
                  return err;
      }

      for (cable = 0; cable < 0x10; ++cable) {
            if (endpoint->out_cables & (1 << cable))
                  snd_usbmidi_init_substream(umidi, SNDRV_RAWMIDI_STREAM_OUTPUT, cable,
                                       &umidi->endpoints[cable & 1].out->ports[cable].substream);
            if (endpoint->in_cables & (1 << cable))
                  snd_usbmidi_init_substream(umidi, SNDRV_RAWMIDI_STREAM_INPUT, cable,
                                       &umidi->endpoints[0].in->ports[cable].substream);
      }
      return 0;
}

static struct snd_rawmidi_global_ops snd_usbmidi_ops = {
      .get_port_info = snd_usbmidi_get_port_info,
};

static int snd_usbmidi_create_rawmidi(struct snd_usb_midi* umidi,
                              int out_ports, int in_ports)
{
      struct snd_rawmidi *rmidi;
      int err;

      err = snd_rawmidi_new(umidi->card, "USB MIDI",
                        umidi->next_midi_device++,
                        out_ports, in_ports, &rmidi);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;
      strcpy(rmidi->name, umidi->card->shortname);
      rmidi->info_flags = SNDRV_RAWMIDI_INFO_OUTPUT |
                      SNDRV_RAWMIDI_INFO_INPUT |
                      SNDRV_RAWMIDI_INFO_DUPLEX;
      rmidi->ops = &snd_usbmidi_ops;
      rmidi->private_data = umidi;
      rmidi->private_free = snd_usbmidi_rawmidi_free;
      snd_rawmidi_set_ops(rmidi, SNDRV_RAWMIDI_STREAM_OUTPUT, &snd_usbmidi_output_ops);
      snd_rawmidi_set_ops(rmidi, SNDRV_RAWMIDI_STREAM_INPUT, &snd_usbmidi_input_ops);

      umidi->rmidi = rmidi;
      return 0;
}

/*
 * Temporarily stop input.
 */
void snd_usbmidi_input_stop(struct list_head* p)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi;
      unsigned int i, j;

      umidi = list_entry(p, struct snd_usb_midi, list);
      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i) {
            struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint* ep = &umidi->endpoints[i];
            if (ep->in)
                  for (j = 0; j < INPUT_URBS; ++j)
                        usb_kill_urb(ep->in->urbs[j]);
      }
}

static void snd_usbmidi_input_start_ep(struct snd_usb_midi_in_endpoint* ep)
{
      unsigned int i;

      if (!ep)
            return;
      for (i = 0; i < INPUT_URBS; ++i) {
            struct urb* urb = ep->urbs[i];
            urb->dev = ep->umidi->dev;
            snd_usbmidi_submit_urb(urb, GFP_KERNEL);
      }
}

/*
 * Resume input after a call to snd_usbmidi_input_stop().
 */
void snd_usbmidi_input_start(struct list_head* p)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi;
      int i;

      umidi = list_entry(p, struct snd_usb_midi, list);
      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i)
            snd_usbmidi_input_start_ep(umidi->endpoints[i].in);
}

/*
 * Creates and registers everything needed for a MIDI streaming interface.
 */
int snd_usbmidi_create(struct snd_card *card,
                   struct usb_interface* iface,
                   struct list_head *midi_list,
                   const struct snd_usb_audio_quirk* quirk)
{
      struct snd_usb_midi* umidi;
      struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info endpoints[MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS];
      int out_ports, in_ports;
      int i, err;

      umidi = kzalloc(sizeof(*umidi), GFP_KERNEL);
      if (!umidi)
            return -ENOMEM;
      umidi->dev = interface_to_usbdev(iface);
      umidi->card = card;
      umidi->iface = iface;
      umidi->quirk = quirk;
      umidi->usb_protocol_ops = &snd_usbmidi_standard_ops;
      init_timer(&umidi->error_timer);
      spin_lock_init(&umidi->disc_lock);
      mutex_init(&umidi->mutex);
      umidi->usb_id = USB_ID(le16_to_cpu(umidi->dev->descriptor.idVendor),
                         le16_to_cpu(umidi->dev->descriptor.idProduct));
      umidi->error_timer.function = snd_usbmidi_error_timer;
      umidi->error_timer.data = (unsigned long)umidi;

      /* detect the endpoint(s) to use */
      memset(endpoints, 0, sizeof(endpoints));
      switch (quirk ? quirk->type : QUIRK_MIDI_STANDARD_INTERFACE) {
      case QUIRK_MIDI_STANDARD_INTERFACE:
            err = snd_usbmidi_get_ms_info(umidi, endpoints);
            if (umidi->usb_id == USB_ID(0x0763, 0x0150)) /* M-Audio Uno */
                  umidi->usb_protocol_ops =
                        &snd_usbmidi_maudio_broken_running_status_ops;
            break;
      case QUIRK_MIDI_US122L:
            umidi->usb_protocol_ops = &snd_usbmidi_122l_ops;
            /* fall through */
      case QUIRK_MIDI_FIXED_ENDPOINT:
            memcpy(&endpoints[0], quirk->data,
                   sizeof(struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info));
            err = snd_usbmidi_detect_endpoints(umidi, &endpoints[0], 1);
            break;
      case QUIRK_MIDI_YAMAHA:
            err = snd_usbmidi_detect_yamaha(umidi, &endpoints[0]);
            break;
      case QUIRK_MIDI_MIDIMAN:
            umidi->usb_protocol_ops = &snd_usbmidi_midiman_ops;
            memcpy(&endpoints[0], quirk->data,
                   sizeof(struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info));
            err = 0;
            break;
      case QUIRK_MIDI_NOVATION:
            umidi->usb_protocol_ops = &snd_usbmidi_novation_ops;
            err = snd_usbmidi_detect_per_port_endpoints(umidi, endpoints);
            break;
      case QUIRK_MIDI_RAW_BYTES:
            umidi->usb_protocol_ops = &snd_usbmidi_raw_ops;
            /*
             * Interface 1 contains isochronous endpoints, but with the same
             * numbers as in interface 0.  Since it is interface 1 that the
             * USB core has most recently seen, these descriptors are now
             * associated with the endpoint numbers.  This will foul up our
             * attempts to submit bulk/interrupt URBs to the endpoints in
             * interface 0, so we have to make sure that the USB core looks
             * again at interface 0 by calling usb_set_interface() on it.
             */
            if (umidi->usb_id == USB_ID(0x07fd, 0x0001)) /* MOTU Fastlane */
                  usb_set_interface(umidi->dev, 0, 0);
            err = snd_usbmidi_detect_per_port_endpoints(umidi, endpoints);
            break;
      case QUIRK_MIDI_EMAGIC:
            umidi->usb_protocol_ops = &snd_usbmidi_emagic_ops;
            memcpy(&endpoints[0], quirk->data,
                   sizeof(struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info));
            err = snd_usbmidi_detect_endpoints(umidi, &endpoints[0], 1);
            break;
      case QUIRK_MIDI_CME:
            umidi->usb_protocol_ops = &snd_usbmidi_cme_ops;
            err = snd_usbmidi_detect_per_port_endpoints(umidi, endpoints);
            break;
      case QUIRK_MIDI_AKAI:
            umidi->usb_protocol_ops = &snd_usbmidi_akai_ops;
            err = snd_usbmidi_detect_per_port_endpoints(umidi, endpoints);
            /* endpoint 1 is input-only */
            endpoints[1].out_cables = 0;
            break;
      default:
            snd_printd(KERN_ERR "invalid quirk type %d\n", quirk->type);
            err = -ENXIO;
            break;
      }
      if (err < 0) {
            kfree(umidi);
            return err;
      }

      /* create rawmidi device */
      out_ports = 0;
      in_ports = 0;
      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i) {
            out_ports += hweight16(endpoints[i].out_cables);
            in_ports += hweight16(endpoints[i].in_cables);
      }
      err = snd_usbmidi_create_rawmidi(umidi, out_ports, in_ports);
      if (err < 0) {
            kfree(umidi);
            return err;
      }

      /* create endpoint/port structures */
      if (quirk && quirk->type == QUIRK_MIDI_MIDIMAN)
            err = snd_usbmidi_create_endpoints_midiman(umidi, &endpoints[0]);
      else
            err = snd_usbmidi_create_endpoints(umidi, endpoints);
      if (err < 0) {
            snd_usbmidi_free(umidi);
            return err;
      }

      list_add_tail(&umidi->list, midi_list);

      for (i = 0; i < MIDI_MAX_ENDPOINTS; ++i)
            snd_usbmidi_input_start_ep(umidi->endpoints[i].in);
      return 0;
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_usbmidi_create);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_usbmidi_input_stop);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_usbmidi_input_start);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_usbmidi_disconnect);

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