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ua101.c

/*
 * Edirol UA-101/UA-1000 driver
 * Copyright (c) Clemens Ladisch <clemens@ladisch.de>
 *
 * This driver is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License, version 2.
 *
 * This driver is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this driver.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 */

#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/usb.h>
#include <linux/usb/audio.h>
#include <sound/core.h>
#include <sound/initval.h>
#include <sound/pcm.h>
#include <sound/pcm_params.h>
#include "../usbaudio.h"
#include "../midi.h"

MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Edirol UA-101/1000 driver");
MODULE_AUTHOR("Clemens Ladisch <clemens@ladisch.de>");
MODULE_LICENSE("GPL v2");
MODULE_SUPPORTED_DEVICE("{{Edirol,UA-101},{Edirol,UA-1000}}");

/*
 * Should not be lower than the minimum scheduling delay of the host
 * controller.  Some Intel controllers need more than one frame; as long as
 * that driver doesn't tell us about this, use 1.5 frames just to be sure.
 */
#define MIN_QUEUE_LENGTH      12
/* Somewhat random. */
#define MAX_QUEUE_LENGTH      30
/*
 * This magic value optimizes memory usage efficiency for the UA-101's packet
 * sizes at all sample rates, taking into account the stupid cache pool sizes
 * that usb_buffer_alloc() uses.
 */
#define DEFAULT_QUEUE_LENGTH  21

#define MAX_PACKET_SIZE       672 /* hardware specific */
#define MAX_MEMORY_BUFFERS    DIV_ROUND_UP(MAX_QUEUE_LENGTH, \
                                   PAGE_SIZE / MAX_PACKET_SIZE)

static int index[SNDRV_CARDS] = SNDRV_DEFAULT_IDX;
static char *id[SNDRV_CARDS] = SNDRV_DEFAULT_STR;
static int enable[SNDRV_CARDS] = SNDRV_DEFAULT_ENABLE_PNP;
static unsigned int queue_length = 21;

module_param_array(index, int, NULL, 0444);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(index, "card index");
module_param_array(id, charp, NULL, 0444);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(id, "ID string");
module_param_array(enable, bool, NULL, 0444);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(enable, "enable card");
module_param(queue_length, uint, 0644);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(queue_length, "USB queue length in microframes, "
             __stringify(MIN_QUEUE_LENGTH)"-"__stringify(MAX_QUEUE_LENGTH));

enum {
      INTF_PLAYBACK,
      INTF_CAPTURE,
      INTF_MIDI,

      INTF_COUNT
};

/* bits in struct ua101::states */
enum {
      USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING,
      USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING,
      ALSA_CAPTURE_OPEN,
      ALSA_PLAYBACK_OPEN,
      ALSA_CAPTURE_RUNNING,
      ALSA_PLAYBACK_RUNNING,
      CAPTURE_URB_COMPLETED,
      PLAYBACK_URB_COMPLETED,
      DISCONNECTED,
};

struct ua101 {
      struct usb_device *dev;
      struct snd_card *card;
      struct usb_interface *intf[INTF_COUNT];
      int card_index;
      struct snd_pcm *pcm;
      struct list_head midi_list;
      u64 format_bit;
      unsigned int rate;
      unsigned int packets_per_second;
      spinlock_t lock;
      struct mutex mutex;
      unsigned long states;

      /* FIFO to synchronize playback rate to capture rate */
      unsigned int rate_feedback_start;
      unsigned int rate_feedback_count;
      u8 rate_feedback[MAX_QUEUE_LENGTH];

      struct list_head ready_playback_urbs;
      struct tasklet_struct playback_tasklet;
      wait_queue_head_t alsa_capture_wait;
      wait_queue_head_t rate_feedback_wait;
      wait_queue_head_t alsa_playback_wait;
      struct ua101_stream {
            struct snd_pcm_substream *substream;
            unsigned int usb_pipe;
            unsigned int channels;
            unsigned int frame_bytes;
            unsigned int max_packet_bytes;
            unsigned int period_pos;
            unsigned int buffer_pos;
            unsigned int queue_length;
            struct ua101_urb {
                  struct urb urb;
                  struct usb_iso_packet_descriptor iso_frame_desc[1];
                  struct list_head ready_list;
            } *urbs[MAX_QUEUE_LENGTH];
            struct {
                  unsigned int size;
                  void *addr;
                  dma_addr_t dma;
            } buffers[MAX_MEMORY_BUFFERS];
      } capture, playback;
};

static DEFINE_MUTEX(devices_mutex);
static unsigned int devices_used;
static struct usb_driver ua101_driver;

static void abort_alsa_playback(struct ua101 *ua);
static void abort_alsa_capture(struct ua101 *ua);

static const char *usb_error_string(int err)
{
      switch (err) {
      case -ENODEV:
            return "no device";
      case -ENOENT:
            return "endpoint not enabled";
      case -EPIPE:
            return "endpoint stalled";
      case -ENOSPC:
            return "not enough bandwidth";
      case -ESHUTDOWN:
            return "device disabled";
      case -EHOSTUNREACH:
            return "device suspended";
      case -EINVAL:
      case -EAGAIN:
      case -EFBIG:
      case -EMSGSIZE:
            return "internal error";
      default:
            return "unknown error";
      }
}

static void abort_usb_capture(struct ua101 *ua)
{
      if (test_and_clear_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states)) {
            wake_up(&ua->alsa_capture_wait);
            wake_up(&ua->rate_feedback_wait);
      }
}

static void abort_usb_playback(struct ua101 *ua)
{
      if (test_and_clear_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states))
            wake_up(&ua->alsa_playback_wait);
}

static void playback_urb_complete(struct urb *usb_urb)
{
      struct ua101_urb *urb = (struct ua101_urb *)usb_urb;
      struct ua101 *ua = urb->urb.context;
      unsigned long flags;

      if (unlikely(urb->urb.status == -ENOENT ||      /* unlinked */
                 urb->urb.status == -ENODEV ||  /* device removed */
                 urb->urb.status == -ECONNRESET ||    /* unlinked */
                 urb->urb.status == -ESHUTDOWN)) {    /* device disabled */
            abort_usb_playback(ua);
            abort_alsa_playback(ua);
            return;
      }

      if (test_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states)) {
            /* append URB to FIFO */
            spin_lock_irqsave(&ua->lock, flags);
            list_add_tail(&urb->ready_list, &ua->ready_playback_urbs);
            if (ua->rate_feedback_count > 0)
                  tasklet_schedule(&ua->playback_tasklet);
            ua->playback.substream->runtime->delay -=
                        urb->urb.iso_frame_desc[0].length /
                                    ua->playback.frame_bytes;
            spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ua->lock, flags);
      }
}

static void first_playback_urb_complete(struct urb *urb)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = urb->context;

      urb->complete = playback_urb_complete;
      playback_urb_complete(urb);

      set_bit(PLAYBACK_URB_COMPLETED, &ua->states);
      wake_up(&ua->alsa_playback_wait);
}

/* copy data from the ALSA ring buffer into the URB buffer */
static bool copy_playback_data(struct ua101_stream *stream, struct urb *urb,
                         unsigned int frames)
{
      struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime;
      unsigned int frame_bytes, frames1;
      const u8 *source;

      runtime = stream->substream->runtime;
      frame_bytes = stream->frame_bytes;
      source = runtime->dma_area + stream->buffer_pos * frame_bytes;
      if (stream->buffer_pos + frames <= runtime->buffer_size) {
            memcpy(urb->transfer_buffer, source, frames * frame_bytes);
      } else {
            /* wrap around at end of ring buffer */
            frames1 = runtime->buffer_size - stream->buffer_pos;
            memcpy(urb->transfer_buffer, source, frames1 * frame_bytes);
            memcpy(urb->transfer_buffer + frames1 * frame_bytes,
                   runtime->dma_area, (frames - frames1) * frame_bytes);
      }

      stream->buffer_pos += frames;
      if (stream->buffer_pos >= runtime->buffer_size)
            stream->buffer_pos -= runtime->buffer_size;
      stream->period_pos += frames;
      if (stream->period_pos >= runtime->period_size) {
            stream->period_pos -= runtime->period_size;
            return true;
      }
      return false;
}

static inline void add_with_wraparound(struct ua101 *ua,
                               unsigned int *value, unsigned int add)
{
      *value += add;
      if (*value >= ua->playback.queue_length)
            *value -= ua->playback.queue_length;
}

static void playback_tasklet(unsigned long data)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = (void *)data;
      unsigned long flags;
      unsigned int frames;
      struct ua101_urb *urb;
      bool do_period_elapsed = false;
      int err;

      if (unlikely(!test_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states)))
            return;

      /*
       * Synchronizing the playback rate to the capture rate is done by using
       * the same sequence of packet sizes for both streams.
       * Submitting a playback URB therefore requires both a ready URB and
       * the size of the corresponding capture packet, i.e., both playback
       * and capture URBs must have been completed.  Since the USB core does
       * not guarantee that playback and capture complete callbacks are
       * called alternately, we use two FIFOs for packet sizes and read URBs;
       * submitting playback URBs is possible as long as both FIFOs are
       * nonempty.
       */
      spin_lock_irqsave(&ua->lock, flags);
      while (ua->rate_feedback_count > 0 &&
             !list_empty(&ua->ready_playback_urbs)) {
            /* take packet size out of FIFO */
            frames = ua->rate_feedback[ua->rate_feedback_start];
            add_with_wraparound(ua, &ua->rate_feedback_start, 1);
            ua->rate_feedback_count--;

            /* take URB out of FIFO */
            urb = list_first_entry(&ua->ready_playback_urbs,
                               struct ua101_urb, ready_list);
            list_del(&urb->ready_list);

            /* fill packet with data or silence */
            urb->urb.iso_frame_desc[0].length =
                  frames * ua->playback.frame_bytes;
            if (test_bit(ALSA_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states))
                  do_period_elapsed |= copy_playback_data(&ua->playback,
                                                &urb->urb,
                                                frames);
            else
                  memset(urb->urb.transfer_buffer, 0,
                         urb->urb.iso_frame_desc[0].length);

            /* and off you go ... */
            err = usb_submit_urb(&urb->urb, GFP_ATOMIC);
            if (unlikely(err < 0)) {
                  spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ua->lock, flags);
                  abort_usb_playback(ua);
                  abort_alsa_playback(ua);
                  dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "USB request error %d: %s\n",
                        err, usb_error_string(err));
                  return;
            }
            ua->playback.substream->runtime->delay += frames;
      }
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ua->lock, flags);
      if (do_period_elapsed)
            snd_pcm_period_elapsed(ua->playback.substream);
}

/* copy data from the URB buffer into the ALSA ring buffer */
static bool copy_capture_data(struct ua101_stream *stream, struct urb *urb,
                        unsigned int frames)
{
      struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime;
      unsigned int frame_bytes, frames1;
      u8 *dest;

      runtime = stream->substream->runtime;
      frame_bytes = stream->frame_bytes;
      dest = runtime->dma_area + stream->buffer_pos * frame_bytes;
      if (stream->buffer_pos + frames <= runtime->buffer_size) {
            memcpy(dest, urb->transfer_buffer, frames * frame_bytes);
      } else {
            /* wrap around at end of ring buffer */
            frames1 = runtime->buffer_size - stream->buffer_pos;
            memcpy(dest, urb->transfer_buffer, frames1 * frame_bytes);
            memcpy(runtime->dma_area,
                   urb->transfer_buffer + frames1 * frame_bytes,
                   (frames - frames1) * frame_bytes);
      }

      stream->buffer_pos += frames;
      if (stream->buffer_pos >= runtime->buffer_size)
            stream->buffer_pos -= runtime->buffer_size;
      stream->period_pos += frames;
      if (stream->period_pos >= runtime->period_size) {
            stream->period_pos -= runtime->period_size;
            return true;
      }
      return false;
}

static void capture_urb_complete(struct urb *urb)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = urb->context;
      struct ua101_stream *stream = &ua->capture;
      unsigned long flags;
      unsigned int frames, write_ptr;
      bool do_period_elapsed;
      int err;

      if (unlikely(urb->status == -ENOENT ||          /* unlinked */
                 urb->status == -ENODEV ||            /* device removed */
                 urb->status == -ECONNRESET ||  /* unlinked */
                 urb->status == -ESHUTDOWN))    /* device disabled */
            goto stream_stopped;

      if (urb->status >= 0 && urb->iso_frame_desc[0].status >= 0)
            frames = urb->iso_frame_desc[0].actual_length /
                  stream->frame_bytes;
      else
            frames = 0;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&ua->lock, flags);

      if (frames > 0 && test_bit(ALSA_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states))
            do_period_elapsed = copy_capture_data(stream, urb, frames);
      else
            do_period_elapsed = false;

      if (test_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states)) {
            err = usb_submit_urb(urb, GFP_ATOMIC);
            if (unlikely(err < 0)) {
                  spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ua->lock, flags);
                  dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "USB request error %d: %s\n",
                        err, usb_error_string(err));
                  goto stream_stopped;
            }

            /* append packet size to FIFO */
            write_ptr = ua->rate_feedback_start;
            add_with_wraparound(ua, &write_ptr, ua->rate_feedback_count);
            ua->rate_feedback[write_ptr] = frames;
            if (ua->rate_feedback_count < ua->playback.queue_length) {
                  ua->rate_feedback_count++;
                  if (ua->rate_feedback_count ==
                                    ua->playback.queue_length)
                        wake_up(&ua->rate_feedback_wait);
            } else {
                  /*
                   * Ring buffer overflow; this happens when the playback
                   * stream is not running.  Throw away the oldest entry,
                   * so that the playback stream, when it starts, sees
                   * the most recent packet sizes.
                   */
                  add_with_wraparound(ua, &ua->rate_feedback_start, 1);
            }
            if (test_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states) &&
                !list_empty(&ua->ready_playback_urbs))
                  tasklet_schedule(&ua->playback_tasklet);
      }

      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ua->lock, flags);

      if (do_period_elapsed)
            snd_pcm_period_elapsed(stream->substream);

      return;

stream_stopped:
      abort_usb_playback(ua);
      abort_usb_capture(ua);
      abort_alsa_playback(ua);
      abort_alsa_capture(ua);
}

static void first_capture_urb_complete(struct urb *urb)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = urb->context;

      urb->complete = capture_urb_complete;
      capture_urb_complete(urb);

      set_bit(CAPTURE_URB_COMPLETED, &ua->states);
      wake_up(&ua->alsa_capture_wait);
}

static int submit_stream_urbs(struct ua101 *ua, struct ua101_stream *stream)
{
      unsigned int i;

      for (i = 0; i < stream->queue_length; ++i) {
            int err = usb_submit_urb(&stream->urbs[i]->urb, GFP_KERNEL);
            if (err < 0) {
                  dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "USB request error %d: %s\n",
                        err, usb_error_string(err));
                  return err;
            }
      }
      return 0;
}

static void kill_stream_urbs(struct ua101_stream *stream)
{
      unsigned int i;

      for (i = 0; i < stream->queue_length; ++i)
            usb_kill_urb(&stream->urbs[i]->urb);
}

static int enable_iso_interface(struct ua101 *ua, unsigned int intf_index)
{
      struct usb_host_interface *alts;

      alts = ua->intf[intf_index]->cur_altsetting;
      if (alts->desc.bAlternateSetting != 1) {
            int err = usb_set_interface(ua->dev,
                                  alts->desc.bInterfaceNumber, 1);
            if (err < 0) {
                  dev_err(&ua->dev->dev,
                        "cannot initialize interface; error %d: %s\n",
                        err, usb_error_string(err));
                  return err;
            }
      }
      return 0;
}

static void disable_iso_interface(struct ua101 *ua, unsigned int intf_index)
{
      struct usb_host_interface *alts;

      alts = ua->intf[intf_index]->cur_altsetting;
      if (alts->desc.bAlternateSetting != 0) {
            int err = usb_set_interface(ua->dev,
                                  alts->desc.bInterfaceNumber, 0);
            if (err < 0 && !test_bit(DISCONNECTED, &ua->states))
                  dev_warn(&ua->dev->dev,
                         "interface reset failed; error %d: %s\n",
                         err, usb_error_string(err));
      }
}

static void stop_usb_capture(struct ua101 *ua)
{
      clear_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states);

      kill_stream_urbs(&ua->capture);

      disable_iso_interface(ua, INTF_CAPTURE);
}

static int start_usb_capture(struct ua101 *ua)
{
      int err;

      if (test_bit(DISCONNECTED, &ua->states))
            return -ENODEV;

      if (test_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states))
            return 0;

      kill_stream_urbs(&ua->capture);

      err = enable_iso_interface(ua, INTF_CAPTURE);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;

      clear_bit(CAPTURE_URB_COMPLETED, &ua->states);
      ua->capture.urbs[0]->urb.complete = first_capture_urb_complete;
      ua->rate_feedback_start = 0;
      ua->rate_feedback_count = 0;

      set_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states);
      err = submit_stream_urbs(ua, &ua->capture);
      if (err < 0)
            stop_usb_capture(ua);
      return err;
}

static void stop_usb_playback(struct ua101 *ua)
{
      clear_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states);

      kill_stream_urbs(&ua->playback);

      tasklet_kill(&ua->playback_tasklet);

      disable_iso_interface(ua, INTF_PLAYBACK);
}

static int start_usb_playback(struct ua101 *ua)
{
      unsigned int i, frames;
      struct urb *urb;
      int err = 0;

      if (test_bit(DISCONNECTED, &ua->states))
            return -ENODEV;

      if (test_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states))
            return 0;

      kill_stream_urbs(&ua->playback);
      tasklet_kill(&ua->playback_tasklet);

      err = enable_iso_interface(ua, INTF_PLAYBACK);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;

      clear_bit(PLAYBACK_URB_COMPLETED, &ua->states);
      ua->playback.urbs[0]->urb.complete =
            first_playback_urb_complete;
      spin_lock_irq(&ua->lock);
      INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ua->ready_playback_urbs);
      spin_unlock_irq(&ua->lock);

      /*
       * We submit the initial URBs all at once, so we have to wait for the
       * packet size FIFO to be full.
       */
      wait_event(ua->rate_feedback_wait,
               ua->rate_feedback_count >= ua->playback.queue_length ||
               !test_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states) ||
               test_bit(DISCONNECTED, &ua->states));
      if (test_bit(DISCONNECTED, &ua->states)) {
            stop_usb_playback(ua);
            return -ENODEV;
      }
      if (!test_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states)) {
            stop_usb_playback(ua);
            return -EIO;
      }

      for (i = 0; i < ua->playback.queue_length; ++i) {
            /* all initial URBs contain silence */
            spin_lock_irq(&ua->lock);
            frames = ua->rate_feedback[ua->rate_feedback_start];
            add_with_wraparound(ua, &ua->rate_feedback_start, 1);
            ua->rate_feedback_count--;
            spin_unlock_irq(&ua->lock);
            urb = &ua->playback.urbs[i]->urb;
            urb->iso_frame_desc[0].length =
                  frames * ua->playback.frame_bytes;
            memset(urb->transfer_buffer, 0,
                   urb->iso_frame_desc[0].length);
      }

      set_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states);
      err = submit_stream_urbs(ua, &ua->playback);
      if (err < 0)
            stop_usb_playback(ua);
      return err;
}

static void abort_alsa_capture(struct ua101 *ua)
{
      if (test_bit(ALSA_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states))
            snd_pcm_stop(ua->capture.substream, SNDRV_PCM_STATE_XRUN);
}

static void abort_alsa_playback(struct ua101 *ua)
{
      if (test_bit(ALSA_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states))
            snd_pcm_stop(ua->playback.substream, SNDRV_PCM_STATE_XRUN);
}

static int set_stream_hw(struct ua101 *ua, struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
                   unsigned int channels)
{
      int err;

      substream->runtime->hw.info =
            SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP |
            SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP_VALID |
            SNDRV_PCM_INFO_BATCH |
            SNDRV_PCM_INFO_INTERLEAVED |
            SNDRV_PCM_INFO_BLOCK_TRANSFER |
            SNDRV_PCM_INFO_FIFO_IN_FRAMES;
      substream->runtime->hw.formats = ua->format_bit;
      substream->runtime->hw.rates = snd_pcm_rate_to_rate_bit(ua->rate);
      substream->runtime->hw.rate_min = ua->rate;
      substream->runtime->hw.rate_max = ua->rate;
      substream->runtime->hw.channels_min = channels;
      substream->runtime->hw.channels_max = channels;
      substream->runtime->hw.buffer_bytes_max = 45000 * 1024;
      substream->runtime->hw.period_bytes_min = 1;
      substream->runtime->hw.period_bytes_max = UINT_MAX;
      substream->runtime->hw.periods_min = 2;
      substream->runtime->hw.periods_max = UINT_MAX;
      err = snd_pcm_hw_constraint_minmax(substream->runtime,
                                 SNDRV_PCM_HW_PARAM_PERIOD_TIME,
                                 1500000 / ua->packets_per_second,
                                 8192000);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;
      err = snd_pcm_hw_constraint_msbits(substream->runtime, 0, 32, 24);
      return err;
}

static int capture_pcm_open(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;
      int err;

      ua->capture.substream = substream;
      err = set_stream_hw(ua, substream, ua->capture.channels);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;
      substream->runtime->hw.fifo_size =
            DIV_ROUND_CLOSEST(ua->rate, ua->packets_per_second);
      substream->runtime->delay = substream->runtime->hw.fifo_size;

      mutex_lock(&ua->mutex);
      err = start_usb_capture(ua);
      if (err >= 0)
            set_bit(ALSA_CAPTURE_OPEN, &ua->states);
      mutex_unlock(&ua->mutex);
      return err;
}

static int playback_pcm_open(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;
      int err;

      ua->playback.substream = substream;
      err = set_stream_hw(ua, substream, ua->playback.channels);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;
      substream->runtime->hw.fifo_size =
            DIV_ROUND_CLOSEST(ua->rate * ua->playback.queue_length,
                          ua->packets_per_second);

      mutex_lock(&ua->mutex);
      err = start_usb_capture(ua);
      if (err < 0)
            goto error;
      err = start_usb_playback(ua);
      if (err < 0) {
            if (!test_bit(ALSA_CAPTURE_OPEN, &ua->states))
                  stop_usb_capture(ua);
            goto error;
      }
      set_bit(ALSA_PLAYBACK_OPEN, &ua->states);
error:
      mutex_unlock(&ua->mutex);
      return err;
}

static int capture_pcm_close(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;

      mutex_lock(&ua->mutex);
      clear_bit(ALSA_CAPTURE_OPEN, &ua->states);
      if (!test_bit(ALSA_PLAYBACK_OPEN, &ua->states))
            stop_usb_capture(ua);
      mutex_unlock(&ua->mutex);
      return 0;
}

static int playback_pcm_close(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;

      mutex_lock(&ua->mutex);
      stop_usb_playback(ua);
      clear_bit(ALSA_PLAYBACK_OPEN, &ua->states);
      if (!test_bit(ALSA_CAPTURE_OPEN, &ua->states))
            stop_usb_capture(ua);
      mutex_unlock(&ua->mutex);
      return 0;
}

static int capture_pcm_hw_params(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
                         struct snd_pcm_hw_params *hw_params)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;
      int err;

      mutex_lock(&ua->mutex);
      err = start_usb_capture(ua);
      mutex_unlock(&ua->mutex);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;

      return snd_pcm_lib_alloc_vmalloc_buffer(substream,
                                    params_buffer_bytes(hw_params));
}

static int playback_pcm_hw_params(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
                          struct snd_pcm_hw_params *hw_params)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;
      int err;

      mutex_lock(&ua->mutex);
      err = start_usb_capture(ua);
      if (err >= 0)
            err = start_usb_playback(ua);
      mutex_unlock(&ua->mutex);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;

      return snd_pcm_lib_alloc_vmalloc_buffer(substream,
                                    params_buffer_bytes(hw_params));
}

static int ua101_pcm_hw_free(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
{
      return snd_pcm_lib_free_vmalloc_buffer(substream);
}

static int capture_pcm_prepare(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;
      int err;

      mutex_lock(&ua->mutex);
      err = start_usb_capture(ua);
      mutex_unlock(&ua->mutex);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;

      /*
       * The EHCI driver schedules the first packet of an iso stream at 10 ms
       * in the future, i.e., no data is actually captured for that long.
       * Take the wait here so that the stream is known to be actually
       * running when the start trigger has been called.
       */
      wait_event(ua->alsa_capture_wait,
               test_bit(CAPTURE_URB_COMPLETED, &ua->states) ||
               !test_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states));
      if (test_bit(DISCONNECTED, &ua->states))
            return -ENODEV;
      if (!test_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states))
            return -EIO;

      ua->capture.period_pos = 0;
      ua->capture.buffer_pos = 0;
      return 0;
}

static int playback_pcm_prepare(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;
      int err;

      mutex_lock(&ua->mutex);
      err = start_usb_capture(ua);
      if (err >= 0)
            err = start_usb_playback(ua);
      mutex_unlock(&ua->mutex);
      if (err < 0)
            return err;

      /* see the comment in capture_pcm_prepare() */
      wait_event(ua->alsa_playback_wait,
               test_bit(PLAYBACK_URB_COMPLETED, &ua->states) ||
               !test_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states));
      if (test_bit(DISCONNECTED, &ua->states))
            return -ENODEV;
      if (!test_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states))
            return -EIO;

      substream->runtime->delay = 0;
      ua->playback.period_pos = 0;
      ua->playback.buffer_pos = 0;
      return 0;
}

static int capture_pcm_trigger(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream, int cmd)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;

      switch (cmd) {
      case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_START:
            if (!test_bit(USB_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states))
                  return -EIO;
            set_bit(ALSA_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states);
            return 0;
      case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_STOP:
            clear_bit(ALSA_CAPTURE_RUNNING, &ua->states);
            return 0;
      default:
            return -EINVAL;
      }
}

static int playback_pcm_trigger(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream, int cmd)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = substream->private_data;

      switch (cmd) {
      case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_START:
            if (!test_bit(USB_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states))
                  return -EIO;
            set_bit(ALSA_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states);
            return 0;
      case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_STOP:
            clear_bit(ALSA_PLAYBACK_RUNNING, &ua->states);
            return 0;
      default:
            return -EINVAL;
      }
}

static inline snd_pcm_uframes_t ua101_pcm_pointer(struct ua101 *ua,
                                      struct ua101_stream *stream)
{
      unsigned long flags;
      unsigned int pos;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&ua->lock, flags);
      pos = stream->buffer_pos;
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ua->lock, flags);
      return pos;
}

static snd_pcm_uframes_t capture_pcm_pointer(struct snd_pcm_substream *subs)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = subs->private_data;

      return ua101_pcm_pointer(ua, &ua->capture);
}

static snd_pcm_uframes_t playback_pcm_pointer(struct snd_pcm_substream *subs)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = subs->private_data;

      return ua101_pcm_pointer(ua, &ua->playback);
}

static struct snd_pcm_ops capture_pcm_ops = {
      .open = capture_pcm_open,
      .close = capture_pcm_close,
      .ioctl = snd_pcm_lib_ioctl,
      .hw_params = capture_pcm_hw_params,
      .hw_free = ua101_pcm_hw_free,
      .prepare = capture_pcm_prepare,
      .trigger = capture_pcm_trigger,
      .pointer = capture_pcm_pointer,
      .page = snd_pcm_lib_get_vmalloc_page,
      .mmap = snd_pcm_lib_mmap_vmalloc,
};

static struct snd_pcm_ops playback_pcm_ops = {
      .open = playback_pcm_open,
      .close = playback_pcm_close,
      .ioctl = snd_pcm_lib_ioctl,
      .hw_params = playback_pcm_hw_params,
      .hw_free = ua101_pcm_hw_free,
      .prepare = playback_pcm_prepare,
      .trigger = playback_pcm_trigger,
      .pointer = playback_pcm_pointer,
      .page = snd_pcm_lib_get_vmalloc_page,
      .mmap = snd_pcm_lib_mmap_vmalloc,
};

static const struct uac_format_type_i_discrete_descriptor *
find_format_descriptor(struct usb_interface *interface)
{
      struct usb_host_interface *alt;
      u8 *extra;
      int extralen;

      if (interface->num_altsetting != 2) {
            dev_err(&interface->dev, "invalid num_altsetting\n");
            return NULL;
      }

      alt = &interface->altsetting[0];
      if (alt->desc.bNumEndpoints != 0) {
            dev_err(&interface->dev, "invalid bNumEndpoints\n");
            return NULL;
      }

      alt = &interface->altsetting[1];
      if (alt->desc.bNumEndpoints != 1) {
            dev_err(&interface->dev, "invalid bNumEndpoints\n");
            return NULL;
      }

      extra = alt->extra;
      extralen = alt->extralen;
      while (extralen >= sizeof(struct usb_descriptor_header)) {
            struct uac_format_type_i_discrete_descriptor *desc;

            desc = (struct uac_format_type_i_discrete_descriptor *)extra;
            if (desc->bLength > extralen) {
                  dev_err(&interface->dev, "descriptor overflow\n");
                  return NULL;
            }
            if (desc->bLength == UAC_FORMAT_TYPE_I_DISCRETE_DESC_SIZE(1) &&
                desc->bDescriptorType == USB_DT_CS_INTERFACE &&
                desc->bDescriptorSubtype == UAC_FORMAT_TYPE) {
                  if (desc->bFormatType != UAC_FORMAT_TYPE_I_PCM ||
                      desc->bSamFreqType != 1) {
                        dev_err(&interface->dev,
                              "invalid format type\n");
                        return NULL;
                  }
                  return desc;
            }
            extralen -= desc->bLength;
            extra += desc->bLength;
      }
      dev_err(&interface->dev, "sample format descriptor not found\n");
      return NULL;
}

static int detect_usb_format(struct ua101 *ua)
{
      const struct uac_format_type_i_discrete_descriptor *fmt_capture;
      const struct uac_format_type_i_discrete_descriptor *fmt_playback;
      const struct usb_endpoint_descriptor *epd;
      unsigned int rate2;

      fmt_capture = find_format_descriptor(ua->intf[INTF_CAPTURE]);
      fmt_playback = find_format_descriptor(ua->intf[INTF_PLAYBACK]);
      if (!fmt_capture || !fmt_playback)
            return -ENXIO;

      switch (fmt_capture->bSubframeSize) {
      case 3:
            ua->format_bit = SNDRV_PCM_FMTBIT_S24_3LE;
            break;
      case 4:
            ua->format_bit = SNDRV_PCM_FMTBIT_S32_LE;
            break;
      default:
            dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "sample width is not 24 or 32 bits\n");
            return -ENXIO;
      }
      if (fmt_capture->bSubframeSize != fmt_playback->bSubframeSize) {
            dev_err(&ua->dev->dev,
                  "playback/capture sample widths do not match\n");
            return -ENXIO;
      }

      if (fmt_capture->bBitResolution != 24 ||
          fmt_playback->bBitResolution != 24) {
            dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "sample width is not 24 bits\n");
            return -ENXIO;
      }

      ua->rate = combine_triple(fmt_capture->tSamFreq[0]);
      rate2 = combine_triple(fmt_playback->tSamFreq[0]);
      if (ua->rate != rate2) {
            dev_err(&ua->dev->dev,
                  "playback/capture rates do not match: %u/%u\n",
                  rate2, ua->rate);
            return -ENXIO;
      }

      switch (ua->dev->speed) {
      case USB_SPEED_FULL:
            ua->packets_per_second = 1000;
            break;
      case USB_SPEED_HIGH:
            ua->packets_per_second = 8000;
            break;
      default:
            dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "unknown device speed\n");
            return -ENXIO;
      }

      ua->capture.channels = fmt_capture->bNrChannels;
      ua->playback.channels = fmt_playback->bNrChannels;
      ua->capture.frame_bytes =
            fmt_capture->bSubframeSize * ua->capture.channels;
      ua->playback.frame_bytes =
            fmt_playback->bSubframeSize * ua->playback.channels;

      epd = &ua->intf[INTF_CAPTURE]->altsetting[1].endpoint[0].desc;
      if (!usb_endpoint_is_isoc_in(epd)) {
            dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "invalid capture endpoint\n");
            return -ENXIO;
      }
      ua->capture.usb_pipe = usb_rcvisocpipe(ua->dev, usb_endpoint_num(epd));
      ua->capture.max_packet_bytes = le16_to_cpu(epd->wMaxPacketSize);

      epd = &ua->intf[INTF_PLAYBACK]->altsetting[1].endpoint[0].desc;
      if (!usb_endpoint_is_isoc_out(epd)) {
            dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "invalid playback endpoint\n");
            return -ENXIO;
      }
      ua->playback.usb_pipe = usb_sndisocpipe(ua->dev, usb_endpoint_num(epd));
      ua->playback.max_packet_bytes = le16_to_cpu(epd->wMaxPacketSize);
      return 0;
}

static int alloc_stream_buffers(struct ua101 *ua, struct ua101_stream *stream)
{
      unsigned int remaining_packets, packets, packets_per_page, i;
      size_t size;

      stream->queue_length = queue_length;
      stream->queue_length = max(stream->queue_length,
                           (unsigned int)MIN_QUEUE_LENGTH);
      stream->queue_length = min(stream->queue_length,
                           (unsigned int)MAX_QUEUE_LENGTH);

      /*
       * The cache pool sizes used by usb_buffer_alloc() (128, 512, 2048) are
       * quite bad when used with the packet sizes of this device (e.g. 280,
       * 520, 624).  Therefore, we allocate and subdivide entire pages, using
       * a smaller buffer only for the last chunk.
       */
      remaining_packets = stream->queue_length;
      packets_per_page = PAGE_SIZE / stream->max_packet_bytes;
      for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(stream->buffers); ++i) {
            packets = min(remaining_packets, packets_per_page);
            size = packets * stream->max_packet_bytes;
            stream->buffers[i].addr =
                  usb_buffer_alloc(ua->dev, size, GFP_KERNEL,
                               &stream->buffers[i].dma);
            if (!stream->buffers[i].addr)
                  return -ENOMEM;
            stream->buffers[i].size = size;
            remaining_packets -= packets;
            if (!remaining_packets)
                  break;
      }
      if (remaining_packets) {
            dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "too many packets\n");
            return -ENXIO;
      }
      return 0;
}

static void free_stream_buffers(struct ua101 *ua, struct ua101_stream *stream)
{
      unsigned int i;

      for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(stream->buffers); ++i)
            usb_buffer_free(ua->dev,
                        stream->buffers[i].size,
                        stream->buffers[i].addr,
                        stream->buffers[i].dma);
}

static int alloc_stream_urbs(struct ua101 *ua, struct ua101_stream *stream,
                       void (*urb_complete)(struct urb *))
{
      unsigned max_packet_size = stream->max_packet_bytes;
      struct ua101_urb *urb;
      unsigned int b, u = 0;

      for (b = 0; b < ARRAY_SIZE(stream->buffers); ++b) {
            unsigned int size = stream->buffers[b].size;
            u8 *addr = stream->buffers[b].addr;
            dma_addr_t dma = stream->buffers[b].dma;

            while (size >= max_packet_size) {
                  if (u >= stream->queue_length)
                        goto bufsize_error;
                  urb = kmalloc(sizeof(*urb), GFP_KERNEL);
                  if (!urb)
                        return -ENOMEM;
                  usb_init_urb(&urb->urb);
                  urb->urb.dev = ua->dev;
                  urb->urb.pipe = stream->usb_pipe;
                  urb->urb.transfer_flags = URB_ISO_ASAP |
                              URB_NO_TRANSFER_DMA_MAP;
                  urb->urb.transfer_buffer = addr;
                  urb->urb.transfer_dma = dma;
                  urb->urb.transfer_buffer_length = max_packet_size;
                  urb->urb.number_of_packets = 1;
                  urb->urb.interval = 1;
                  urb->urb.context = ua;
                  urb->urb.complete = urb_complete;
                  urb->urb.iso_frame_desc[0].offset = 0;
                  urb->urb.iso_frame_desc[0].length = max_packet_size;
                  stream->urbs[u++] = urb;
                  size -= max_packet_size;
                  addr += max_packet_size;
                  dma += max_packet_size;
            }
      }
      if (u == stream->queue_length)
            return 0;
bufsize_error:
      dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "internal buffer size error\n");
      return -ENXIO;
}

static void free_stream_urbs(struct ua101_stream *stream)
{
      unsigned int i;

      for (i = 0; i < stream->queue_length; ++i)
            kfree(stream->urbs[i]);
}

static void free_usb_related_resources(struct ua101 *ua,
                               struct usb_interface *interface)
{
      unsigned int i;

      free_stream_urbs(&ua->capture);
      free_stream_urbs(&ua->playback);
      free_stream_buffers(ua, &ua->capture);
      free_stream_buffers(ua, &ua->playback);

      for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(ua->intf); ++i)
            if (ua->intf[i]) {
                  usb_set_intfdata(ua->intf[i], NULL);
                  if (ua->intf[i] != interface)
                        usb_driver_release_interface(&ua101_driver,
                                               ua->intf[i]);
            }
}

static void ua101_card_free(struct snd_card *card)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = card->private_data;

      mutex_destroy(&ua->mutex);
}

static int ua101_probe(struct usb_interface *interface,
                   const struct usb_device_id *usb_id)
{
      static const struct snd_usb_midi_endpoint_info midi_ep = {
            .out_cables = 0x0001,
            .in_cables = 0x0001
      };
      static const struct snd_usb_audio_quirk midi_quirk = {
            .type = QUIRK_MIDI_FIXED_ENDPOINT,
            .data = &midi_ep
      };
      static const int intf_numbers[2][3] = {
            {     /* UA-101 */
                  [INTF_PLAYBACK] = 0,
                  [INTF_CAPTURE] = 1,
                  [INTF_MIDI] = 2,
            },
            {     /* UA-1000 */
                  [INTF_CAPTURE] = 1,
                  [INTF_PLAYBACK] = 2,
                  [INTF_MIDI] = 3,
            },
      };
      struct snd_card *card;
      struct ua101 *ua;
      unsigned int card_index, i;
      int is_ua1000;
      const char *name;
      char usb_path[32];
      int err;

      is_ua1000 = usb_id->idProduct == 0x0044;

      if (interface->altsetting->desc.bInterfaceNumber !=
          intf_numbers[is_ua1000][0])
            return -ENODEV;

      mutex_lock(&devices_mutex);

      for (card_index = 0; card_index < SNDRV_CARDS; ++card_index)
            if (enable[card_index] && !(devices_used & (1 << card_index)))
                  break;
      if (card_index >= SNDRV_CARDS) {
            mutex_unlock(&devices_mutex);
            return -ENOENT;
      }
      err = snd_card_create(index[card_index], id[card_index], THIS_MODULE,
                        sizeof(*ua), &card);
      if (err < 0) {
            mutex_unlock(&devices_mutex);
            return err;
      }
      card->private_free = ua101_card_free;
      ua = card->private_data;
      ua->dev = interface_to_usbdev(interface);
      ua->card = card;
      ua->card_index = card_index;
      INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ua->midi_list);
      spin_lock_init(&ua->lock);
      mutex_init(&ua->mutex);
      INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ua->ready_playback_urbs);
      tasklet_init(&ua->playback_tasklet,
                 playback_tasklet, (unsigned long)ua);
      init_waitqueue_head(&ua->alsa_capture_wait);
      init_waitqueue_head(&ua->rate_feedback_wait);
      init_waitqueue_head(&ua->alsa_playback_wait);

      ua->intf[0] = interface;
      for (i = 1; i < ARRAY_SIZE(ua->intf); ++i) {
            ua->intf[i] = usb_ifnum_to_if(ua->dev,
                                    intf_numbers[is_ua1000][i]);
            if (!ua->intf[i]) {
                  dev_err(&ua->dev->dev, "interface %u not found\n",
                        intf_numbers[is_ua1000][i]);
                  err = -ENXIO;
                  goto probe_error;
            }
            err = usb_driver_claim_interface(&ua101_driver,
                                     ua->intf[i], ua);
            if (err < 0) {
                  ua->intf[i] = NULL;
                  err = -EBUSY;
                  goto probe_error;
            }
      }

      snd_card_set_dev(card, &interface->dev);

      err = detect_usb_format(ua);
      if (err < 0)
            goto probe_error;

      name = usb_id->idProduct == 0x0044 ? "UA-1000" : "UA-101";
      strcpy(card->driver, "UA-101");
      strcpy(card->shortname, name);
      usb_make_path(ua->dev, usb_path, sizeof(usb_path));
      snprintf(ua->card->longname, sizeof(ua->card->longname),
             "EDIROL %s (serial %s), %u Hz at %s, %s speed", name,
             ua->dev->serial ? ua->dev->serial : "?", ua->rate, usb_path,
             ua->dev->speed == USB_SPEED_HIGH ? "high" : "full");

      err = alloc_stream_buffers(ua, &ua->capture);
      if (err < 0)
            goto probe_error;
      err = alloc_stream_buffers(ua, &ua->playback);
      if (err < 0)
            goto probe_error;

      err = alloc_stream_urbs(ua, &ua->capture, capture_urb_complete);
      if (err < 0)
            goto probe_error;
      err = alloc_stream_urbs(ua, &ua->playback, playback_urb_complete);
      if (err < 0)
            goto probe_error;

      err = snd_pcm_new(card, name, 0, 1, 1, &ua->pcm);
      if (err < 0)
            goto probe_error;
      ua->pcm->private_data = ua;
      strcpy(ua->pcm->name, name);
      snd_pcm_set_ops(ua->pcm, SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK, &playback_pcm_ops);
      snd_pcm_set_ops(ua->pcm, SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE, &capture_pcm_ops);

      err = snd_usbmidi_create(card, ua->intf[INTF_MIDI],
                         &ua->midi_list, &midi_quirk);
      if (err < 0)
            goto probe_error;

      err = snd_card_register(card);
      if (err < 0)
            goto probe_error;

      usb_set_intfdata(interface, ua);
      devices_used |= 1 << card_index;

      mutex_unlock(&devices_mutex);
      return 0;

probe_error:
      free_usb_related_resources(ua, interface);
      snd_card_free(card);
      mutex_unlock(&devices_mutex);
      return err;
}

static void ua101_disconnect(struct usb_interface *interface)
{
      struct ua101 *ua = usb_get_intfdata(interface);
      struct list_head *midi;

      if (!ua)
            return;

      mutex_lock(&devices_mutex);

      set_bit(DISCONNECTED, &ua->states);
      wake_up(&ua->rate_feedback_wait);

      /* make sure that userspace cannot create new requests */
      snd_card_disconnect(ua->card);

      /* make sure that there are no pending USB requests */
      __list_for_each(midi, &ua->midi_list)
            snd_usbmidi_disconnect(midi);
      abort_alsa_playback(ua);
      abort_alsa_capture(ua);
      mutex_lock(&ua->mutex);
      stop_usb_playback(ua);
      stop_usb_capture(ua);
      mutex_unlock(&ua->mutex);

      free_usb_related_resources(ua, interface);

      devices_used &= ~(1 << ua->card_index);

      snd_card_free_when_closed(ua->card);

      mutex_unlock(&devices_mutex);
}

static struct usb_device_id ua101_ids[] = {
      { USB_DEVICE(0x0582, 0x0044) }, /* UA-1000 high speed */
      { USB_DEVICE(0x0582, 0x007d) }, /* UA-101 high speed */
      { USB_DEVICE(0x0582, 0x008d) }, /* UA-101 full speed */
      { }
};
MODULE_DEVICE_TABLE(usb, ua101_ids);

static struct usb_driver ua101_driver = {
      .name = "snd-ua101",
      .id_table = ua101_ids,
      .probe = ua101_probe,
      .disconnect = ua101_disconnect,
#if 0
      .suspend = ua101_suspend,
      .resume = ua101_resume,
#endif
};

static int __init alsa_card_ua101_init(void)
{
      return usb_register(&ua101_driver);
}

static void __exit alsa_card_ua101_exit(void)
{
      usb_deregister(&ua101_driver);
      mutex_destroy(&devices_mutex);
}

module_init(alsa_card_ua101_init);
module_exit(alsa_card_ua101_exit);

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