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sscape.c

/*
 *   Low-level ALSA driver for the ENSONIQ SoundScape PnP
 *   Copyright (c) by Chris Rankin
 *
 *   This driver was written in part using information obtained from
 *   the OSS/Free SoundScape driver, written by Hannu Savolainen.
 *
 *
 *   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 *   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 *   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 *   (at your option) any later version.
 *
 *   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 *   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 *   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 *   GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 *   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 *   along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 *   Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307 USA
 */

#include <sound/driver.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/pnp.h>
#include <linux/spinlock.h>
#include <linux/moduleparam.h>
#include <asm/dma.h>
#include <sound/core.h>
#include <sound/hwdep.h>
#include <sound/cs4231.h>
#include <sound/mpu401.h>
#include <sound/initval.h>

#include <sound/sscape_ioctl.h>


MODULE_AUTHOR("Chris Rankin");
MODULE_DESCRIPTION("ENSONIQ SoundScape PnP driver");
MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");

static int index[SNDRV_CARDS] __devinitdata = SNDRV_DEFAULT_IDX;
static char* id[SNDRV_CARDS] __devinitdata = SNDRV_DEFAULT_STR;
static long port[SNDRV_CARDS] __devinitdata = { [0 ... (SNDRV_CARDS-1)] = SNDRV_AUTO_PORT };
static int irq[SNDRV_CARDS] __devinitdata = SNDRV_DEFAULT_IRQ;
static int mpu_irq[SNDRV_CARDS] __devinitdata = SNDRV_DEFAULT_IRQ;
static int dma[SNDRV_CARDS] __devinitdata = SNDRV_DEFAULT_DMA;

module_param_array(index, int, NULL, 0444);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(index, "Index number for SoundScape soundcard");

module_param_array(id, charp, NULL, 0444);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(id, "Description for SoundScape card");

module_param_array(port, long, NULL, 0444);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(port, "Port # for SoundScape driver.");

module_param_array(irq, int, NULL, 0444);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(irq, "IRQ # for SoundScape driver.");

module_param_array(mpu_irq, int, NULL, 0444);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(mpu_irq, "MPU401 IRQ # for SoundScape driver.");

module_param_array(dma, int, NULL, 0444);
MODULE_PARM_DESC(dma, "DMA # for SoundScape driver.");
  
#ifdef CONFIG_PNP
static struct pnp_card_device_id sscape_pnpids[] = {
      { .id = "ENS3081", .devs = { { "ENS0000" } } },
      { .id = "" }      /* end */
};

MODULE_DEVICE_TABLE(pnp_card, sscape_pnpids);
#endif

static snd_card_t *sscape_card[SNDRV_CARDS];


#define MPU401_IO(i)     ((i) + 0)
#define MIDI_DATA_IO(i)  ((i) + 0)
#define MIDI_CTRL_IO(i)  ((i) + 1)
#define HOST_CTRL_IO(i)  ((i) + 2)
#define HOST_DATA_IO(i)  ((i) + 3)
#define ODIE_ADDR_IO(i)  ((i) + 4)
#define ODIE_DATA_IO(i)  ((i) + 5)
#define CODEC_IO(i)      ((i) + 8)

#define IC_ODIE  1
#define IC_OPUS  2

#define RX_READY 0x01
#define TX_READY 0x02

#define CMD_ACK           0x80
#define CMD_SET_MIDI_VOL  0x84
#define CMD_GET_MIDI_VOL  0x85
#define CMD_XXX_MIDI_VOL  0x86
#define CMD_SET_EXTMIDI   0x8a
#define CMD_GET_EXTMIDI   0x8b
#define CMD_SET_MT32      0x8c
#define CMD_GET_MT32      0x8d

enum GA_REG {
      GA_INTSTAT_REG = 0,
      GA_INTENA_REG,
      GA_DMAA_REG,
      GA_DMAB_REG,
      GA_INTCFG_REG,
      GA_DMACFG_REG,
      GA_CDCFG_REG,
      GA_SMCFGA_REG,
      GA_SMCFGB_REG,
      GA_HMCTL_REG
};

#define DMA_8BIT  0x80


#define AD1845_FREQ_SEL_MSB    0x16
#define AD1845_FREQ_SEL_LSB    0x17

struct soundscape {
      spinlock_t lock;
      unsigned io_base;
      int codec_type;
      int ic_type;
      struct resource *io_res;
      cs4231_t *chip;
      mpu401_t *mpu;
      snd_hwdep_t *hw;

      /*
       * The MIDI device won't work until we've loaded
       * its firmware via a hardware-dependent device IOCTL
       */
      spinlock_t fwlock;
      int hw_in_use;
      unsigned long midi_usage;
      unsigned char midi_vol;
};

#define INVALID_IRQ  ((unsigned)-1)


static inline struct soundscape *get_card_soundscape(snd_card_t * c)
{
      return (struct soundscape *) (c->private_data);
}

static inline struct soundscape *get_mpu401_soundscape(mpu401_t * mpu)
{
      return (struct soundscape *) (mpu->private_data);
}

static inline struct soundscape *get_hwdep_soundscape(snd_hwdep_t * hw)
{
      return (struct soundscape *) (hw->private_data);
}


/*
 * Allocates some kernel memory that we can use for DMA.
 * I think this means that the memory has to map to
 * contiguous pages of physical memory.
 */
static struct snd_dma_buffer *get_dmabuf(struct snd_dma_buffer *buf, unsigned long size)
{
      if (buf) {
            if (snd_dma_alloc_pages_fallback(SNDRV_DMA_TYPE_DEV, snd_dma_isa_data(),
                                     size, buf) < 0) {
                  snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: Failed to allocate %lu bytes for DMA\n", size);
                  return NULL;
            }
      }

      return buf;
}

/*
 * Release the DMA-able kernel memory ...
 */
static void free_dmabuf(struct snd_dma_buffer *buf)
{
      if (buf && buf->area)
            snd_dma_free_pages(buf);
}


/*
 * This function writes to the SoundScape's control registers,
 * but doesn't do any locking. It's up to the caller to do that.
 * This is why this function is "unsafe" ...
 */
static inline void sscape_write_unsafe(unsigned io_base, enum GA_REG reg, unsigned char val)
{
      outb(reg, ODIE_ADDR_IO(io_base));
      outb(val, ODIE_DATA_IO(io_base));
}

/*
 * Write to the SoundScape's control registers, and do the
 * necessary locking ...
 */
static void sscape_write(struct soundscape *s, enum GA_REG reg, unsigned char val)
{
      unsigned long flags;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&s->lock, flags);
      sscape_write_unsafe(s->io_base, reg, val);
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&s->lock, flags);
}

/*
 * Read from the SoundScape's control registers, but leave any
 * locking to the caller. This is why the function is "unsafe" ...
 */
static inline unsigned char sscape_read_unsafe(unsigned io_base, enum GA_REG reg)
{
      outb(reg, ODIE_ADDR_IO(io_base));
      return inb(ODIE_DATA_IO(io_base));
}

/*
 * Puts the SoundScape into "host" mode, as compared to "MIDI" mode
 */
static inline void set_host_mode_unsafe(unsigned io_base)
{
      outb(0x0, HOST_CTRL_IO(io_base));
}

/*
 * Puts the SoundScape into "MIDI" mode, as compared to "host" mode
 */
static inline void set_midi_mode_unsafe(unsigned io_base)
{
      outb(0x3, HOST_CTRL_IO(io_base));
}

/*
 * Read the SoundScape's host-mode control register, but leave
 * any locking issues to the caller ...
 */
static inline int host_read_unsafe(unsigned io_base)
{
      int data = -1;
      if ((inb(HOST_CTRL_IO(io_base)) & RX_READY) != 0) {
            data = inb(HOST_DATA_IO(io_base));
      }

      return data;
}

/*
 * Read the SoundScape's host-mode control register, performing
 * a limited amount of busy-waiting if the register isn't ready.
 * Also leaves all locking-issues to the caller ...
 */
static int host_read_ctrl_unsafe(unsigned io_base, unsigned timeout)
{
      int data;

      while (((data = host_read_unsafe(io_base)) < 0) && (timeout != 0)) {
            udelay(100);
            --timeout;
      } /* while */

      return data;
}

/*
 * Write to the SoundScape's host-mode control registers, but
 * leave any locking issues to the caller ...
 */
static inline int host_write_unsafe(unsigned io_base, unsigned char data)
{
      if ((inb(HOST_CTRL_IO(io_base)) & TX_READY) != 0) {
            outb(data, HOST_DATA_IO(io_base));
            return 1;
      }

      return 0;
}

/*
 * Write to the SoundScape's host-mode control registers, performing
 * a limited amount of busy-waiting if the register isn't ready.
 * Also leaves all locking-issues to the caller ...
 */
static int host_write_ctrl_unsafe(unsigned io_base, unsigned char data,
                                  unsigned timeout)
{
      int err;

      while (!(err = host_write_unsafe(io_base, data)) && (timeout != 0)) {
            udelay(100);
            --timeout;
      } /* while */

      return err;
}


/*
 * Check that the MIDI subsystem is operational. If it isn't,
 * then we will hang the computer if we try to use it ...
 *
 * NOTE: This check is based upon observation, not documentation.
 */
static inline int verify_mpu401(const mpu401_t * mpu)
{
      return ((inb(MIDI_CTRL_IO(mpu->port)) & 0xc0) == 0x80);
}

/*
 * This is apparently the standard way to initailise an MPU-401
 */
static inline void initialise_mpu401(const mpu401_t * mpu)
{
      outb(0, MIDI_DATA_IO(mpu->port));
}

/*
 * Tell the SoundScape to activate the AD1845 chip (I think).
 * The AD1845 detection fails if we *don't* do this, so I
 * think that this is a good idea ...
 */
static inline void activate_ad1845_unsafe(unsigned io_base)
{
      sscape_write_unsafe(io_base, GA_HMCTL_REG, (sscape_read_unsafe(io_base, GA_HMCTL_REG) & 0xcf) | 0x10);
      sscape_write_unsafe(io_base, GA_CDCFG_REG, 0x80);
}

/*
 * Do the necessary ALSA-level cleanup to deallocate our driver ...
 */
static void soundscape_free(snd_card_t * c)
{
      register struct soundscape *sscape = get_card_soundscape(c);
      release_and_free_resource(sscape->io_res);
      free_dma(sscape->chip->dma1);
}

/*
 * Tell the SoundScape to begin a DMA tranfer using the given channel.
 * All locking issues are left to the caller.
 */
static inline void sscape_start_dma_unsafe(unsigned io_base, enum GA_REG reg)
{
      sscape_write_unsafe(io_base, reg, sscape_read_unsafe(io_base, reg) | 0x01);
      sscape_write_unsafe(io_base, reg, sscape_read_unsafe(io_base, reg) & 0xfe);
}

/*
 * Wait for a DMA transfer to complete. This is a "limited busy-wait",
 * and all locking issues are left to the caller.
 */
static int sscape_wait_dma_unsafe(unsigned io_base, enum GA_REG reg, unsigned timeout)
{
      while (!(sscape_read_unsafe(io_base, reg) & 0x01) && (timeout != 0)) {
            udelay(100);
            --timeout;
      } /* while */

      return (sscape_read_unsafe(io_base, reg) & 0x01);
}

/*
 * Wait for the On-Board Processor to return its start-up
 * acknowledgement sequence. This wait is too long for
 * us to perform "busy-waiting", and so we must sleep.
 * This in turn means that we must not be holding any
 * spinlocks when we call this function.
 */
static int obp_startup_ack(struct soundscape *s, unsigned timeout)
{
      while (timeout != 0) {
            unsigned long flags;
            unsigned char x;

            schedule_timeout_interruptible(1);

            spin_lock_irqsave(&s->lock, flags);
            x = inb(HOST_DATA_IO(s->io_base));
            spin_unlock_irqrestore(&s->lock, flags);
            if ((x & 0xfe) == 0xfe)
                  return 1;

            --timeout;
      } /* while */

      return 0;
}

/*
 * Wait for the host to return its start-up acknowledgement
 * sequence. This wait is too long for us to perform
 * "busy-waiting", and so we must sleep. This in turn means
 * that we must not be holding any spinlocks when we call
 * this function.
 */
static int host_startup_ack(struct soundscape *s, unsigned timeout)
{
      while (timeout != 0) {
            unsigned long flags;
            unsigned char x;

            schedule_timeout_interruptible(1);

            spin_lock_irqsave(&s->lock, flags);
            x = inb(HOST_DATA_IO(s->io_base));
            spin_unlock_irqrestore(&s->lock, flags);
            if (x == 0xfe)
                  return 1;

            --timeout;
      } /* while */

      return 0;
}

/*
 * Upload a byte-stream into the SoundScape using DMA channel A.
 */
static int upload_dma_data(struct soundscape *s,
                           const unsigned char __user *data,
                           size_t size)
{
      unsigned long flags;
      struct snd_dma_buffer dma;
      int ret;

      if (!get_dmabuf(&dma, PAGE_ALIGN(size)))
            return -ENOMEM;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&s->lock, flags);

      /*
       * Reset the board ...
       */
      sscape_write_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_HMCTL_REG, sscape_read_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_HMCTL_REG) & 0x3f);

      /*
       * Enable the DMA channels and configure them ...
       */
      sscape_write_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_DMACFG_REG, 0x50);
      sscape_write_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_DMAA_REG, (s->chip->dma1 << 4) | DMA_8BIT);
      sscape_write_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_DMAB_REG, 0x20);

      /*
       * Take the board out of reset ...
       */
      sscape_write_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_HMCTL_REG, sscape_read_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_HMCTL_REG) | 0x80);

      /*
       * Upload the user's data (firmware?) to the SoundScape
       * board through the DMA channel ...
       */
      while (size != 0) {
            unsigned long len;

            /*
             * Apparently, copying to/from userspace can sleep.
             * We are therefore forbidden from holding any
             * spinlocks while we copy ...
             */
            spin_unlock_irqrestore(&s->lock, flags);

            /*
             * Remember that the data that we want to DMA
             * comes from USERSPACE. We have already verified
             * the userspace pointer ...
             */
            len = min(size, dma.bytes);
            len -= __copy_from_user(dma.area, data, len);
            data += len;
            size -= len;

            /*
             * Grab that spinlock again, now that we've
             * finished copying!
             */
            spin_lock_irqsave(&s->lock, flags);

            snd_dma_program(s->chip->dma1, dma.addr, len, DMA_MODE_WRITE);
            sscape_start_dma_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_DMAA_REG);
            if (!sscape_wait_dma_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_DMAA_REG, 5000)) {
                  /*
                   * Don't forget to release this spinlock we're holding ...
                   */
                  spin_unlock_irqrestore(&s->lock, flags);

                  snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: DMA upload has timed out\n");
                  ret = -EAGAIN;
                  goto _release_dma;
            }
      } /* while */

      set_host_mode_unsafe(s->io_base);

      /*
       * Boot the board ... (I think)
       */
      sscape_write_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_HMCTL_REG, sscape_read_unsafe(s->io_base, GA_HMCTL_REG) | 0x40);
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&s->lock, flags);

      /*
       * If all has gone well, then the board should acknowledge
       * the new upload and tell us that it has rebooted OK. We
       * give it 5 seconds (max) ...
       */
      ret = 0;
      if (!obp_startup_ack(s, 5)) {
            snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: No response from on-board processor after upload\n");
            ret = -EAGAIN;
      } else if (!host_startup_ack(s, 5)) {
            snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: SoundScape failed to initialise\n");
            ret = -EAGAIN;
      }

      _release_dma:
      /*
       * NOTE!!! We are NOT holding any spinlocks at this point !!!
       */
      sscape_write(s, GA_DMAA_REG, (s->ic_type == IC_ODIE ? 0x70 : 0x40));
      free_dmabuf(&dma);

      return ret;
}

/*
 * Upload the bootblock(?) into the SoundScape. The only
 * purpose of this block of code seems to be to tell
 * us which version of the microcode we should be using.
 *
 * NOTE: The boot-block data resides in USER-SPACE!!!
 *       However, we have already verified its memory
 *       addresses by the time we get here.
 */
static int sscape_upload_bootblock(struct soundscape *sscape, struct sscape_bootblock __user *bb)
{
      unsigned long flags;
      int data = 0;
      int ret;

      ret = upload_dma_data(sscape, bb->code, sizeof(bb->code));

      spin_lock_irqsave(&sscape->lock, flags);
      if (ret == 0) {
            data = host_read_ctrl_unsafe(sscape->io_base, 100);
      }
      set_midi_mode_unsafe(sscape->io_base);
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&sscape->lock, flags);

      if (ret == 0) {
            if (data < 0) {
                  snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: timeout reading firmware version\n");
                  ret = -EAGAIN;
            }
            else if (__copy_to_user(&bb->version, &data, sizeof(bb->version))) {
                  ret = -EFAULT;
            }
      }

      return ret;
}

/*
 * Upload the microcode into the SoundScape. The
 * microcode is 64K of data, and if we try to copy
 * it into a local variable then we will SMASH THE
 * KERNEL'S STACK! We therefore leave it in USER
 * SPACE, and save ourselves from copying it at all.
 */
static int sscape_upload_microcode(struct soundscape *sscape,
                                   const struct sscape_microcode __user *mc)
{
      unsigned long flags;
      char __user *code;
      int err;

      /*
       * We are going to have to copy this data into a special
       * DMA-able buffer before we can upload it. We shall therefore
       * just check that the data pointer is valid for now.
       *
       * NOTE: This buffer is 64K long! That's WAY too big to
       *       copy into a stack-temporary anyway.
       */
      if ( get_user(code, &mc->code) ||
           !access_ok(VERIFY_READ, code, SSCAPE_MICROCODE_SIZE) )
            return -EFAULT;

      if ((err = upload_dma_data(sscape, code, SSCAPE_MICROCODE_SIZE)) == 0) {
            snd_printk(KERN_INFO "sscape: MIDI firmware loaded\n");
      }

      spin_lock_irqsave(&sscape->lock, flags);
      set_midi_mode_unsafe(sscape->io_base);
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&sscape->lock, flags);

      initialise_mpu401(sscape->mpu);

      return err;
}

/*
 * Hardware-specific device functions, to implement special
 * IOCTLs for the SoundScape card. This is how we upload
 * the microcode into the card, for example, and so we
 * must ensure that no two processes can open this device
 * simultaneously, and that we can't open it at all if
 * someone is using the MIDI device.
 */
static int sscape_hw_open(snd_hwdep_t * hw, struct file *file)
{
      register struct soundscape *sscape = get_hwdep_soundscape(hw);
      unsigned long flags;
      int err;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&sscape->fwlock, flags);

      if ((sscape->midi_usage != 0) || sscape->hw_in_use) {
            err = -EBUSY;
      } else {
            sscape->hw_in_use = 1;
            err = 0;
      }

      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&sscape->fwlock, flags);
      return err;
}

static int sscape_hw_release(snd_hwdep_t * hw, struct file *file)
{
      register struct soundscape *sscape = get_hwdep_soundscape(hw);
      unsigned long flags;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&sscape->fwlock, flags);
      sscape->hw_in_use = 0;
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&sscape->fwlock, flags);
      return 0;
}

static int sscape_hw_ioctl(snd_hwdep_t * hw, struct file *file,
                           unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
{
      struct soundscape *sscape = get_hwdep_soundscape(hw);
      int err = -EBUSY;

      switch (cmd) {
      case SND_SSCAPE_LOAD_BOOTB:
            {
                  register struct sscape_bootblock __user *bb = (struct sscape_bootblock __user *) arg;

                  /*
                   * We are going to have to copy this data into a special
                   * DMA-able buffer before we can upload it. We shall therefore
                   * just check that the data pointer is valid for now ...
                   */
                  if ( !access_ok(VERIFY_READ, bb->code, sizeof(bb->code)) )
                        return -EFAULT;

                  /*
                   * Now check that we can write the firmware version number too...
                   */
                  if ( !access_ok(VERIFY_WRITE, &bb->version, sizeof(bb->version)) )
                        return -EFAULT;

                  err = sscape_upload_bootblock(sscape, bb);
            }
            break;

      case SND_SSCAPE_LOAD_MCODE:
            {
                  register const struct sscape_microcode __user *mc = (const struct sscape_microcode __user *) arg;

                  err = sscape_upload_microcode(sscape, mc);
            }
            break;

      default:
            err = -EINVAL;
            break;
      } /* switch */

      return err;
}


/*
 * Mixer control for the SoundScape's MIDI device.
 */
static int sscape_midi_info(snd_kcontrol_t * ctl,
                            snd_ctl_elem_info_t * uinfo)
{
      uinfo->type = SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_TYPE_INTEGER;
      uinfo->count = 1;
      uinfo->value.integer.min = 0;
      uinfo->value.integer.max = 127;
      return 0;
}

static int sscape_midi_get(snd_kcontrol_t * kctl,
                           snd_ctl_elem_value_t * uctl)
{
      cs4231_t *chip = snd_kcontrol_chip(kctl);
      snd_card_t *card = chip->card;
      register struct soundscape *s = get_card_soundscape(card);
      unsigned long flags;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&s->lock, flags);
      set_host_mode_unsafe(s->io_base);

      if (host_write_ctrl_unsafe(s->io_base, CMD_GET_MIDI_VOL, 100)) {
            uctl->value.integer.value[0] = host_read_ctrl_unsafe(s->io_base, 100);
      }

      set_midi_mode_unsafe(s->io_base);
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&s->lock, flags);
      return 0;
}

static int sscape_midi_put(snd_kcontrol_t * kctl,
                           snd_ctl_elem_value_t * uctl)
{
      cs4231_t *chip = snd_kcontrol_chip(kctl);
      snd_card_t *card = chip->card;
      register struct soundscape *s = get_card_soundscape(card);
      unsigned long flags;
      int change;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&s->lock, flags);

      /*
       * We need to put the board into HOST mode before we
       * can send any volume-changing HOST commands ...
       */
      set_host_mode_unsafe(s->io_base);

      /*
       * To successfully change the MIDI volume setting, you seem to
       * have to write a volume command, write the new volume value,
       * and then perform another volume-related command. Perhaps the
       * first command is an "open" and the second command is a "close"?
       */
      if (s->midi_vol == ((unsigned char) uctl->value.integer. value[0] & 127)) {
            change = 0;
            goto __skip_change;
      }
      change = (host_write_ctrl_unsafe(s->io_base, CMD_SET_MIDI_VOL, 100)
                && host_write_ctrl_unsafe(s->io_base, ((unsigned char) uctl->value.integer. value[0]) & 127, 100)
                && host_write_ctrl_unsafe(s->io_base, CMD_XXX_MIDI_VOL, 100));
      __skip_change:

      /*
       * Take the board out of HOST mode and back into MIDI mode ...
       */
      set_midi_mode_unsafe(s->io_base);

      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&s->lock, flags);
      return change;
}

static snd_kcontrol_new_t midi_mixer_ctl = {
      .iface = SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_IFACE_MIXER,
      .name = "MIDI",
      .info = sscape_midi_info,
      .get = sscape_midi_get,
      .put = sscape_midi_put
};

/*
 * The SoundScape can use two IRQs from a possible set of four.
 * These IRQs are encoded as bit patterns so that they can be
 * written to the control registers.
 */
static unsigned __devinit get_irq_config(int irq)
{
      static const int valid_irq[] = { 9, 5, 7, 10 };
      unsigned cfg;

      for (cfg = 0; cfg < ARRAY_SIZE(valid_irq); ++cfg) {
            if (irq == valid_irq[cfg])
                  return cfg;
      } /* for */

      return INVALID_IRQ;
}


/*
 * Perform certain arcane port-checks to see whether there
 * is a SoundScape board lurking behind the given ports.
 */
static int __devinit detect_sscape(struct soundscape *s)
{
      unsigned long flags;
      unsigned d;
      int retval = 0;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&s->lock, flags);

      /*
       * The following code is lifted from the original OSS driver,
       * and as I don't have a datasheet I cannot really comment
       * on what it is doing...
       */
      if ((inb(HOST_CTRL_IO(s->io_base)) & 0x78) != 0)
            goto _done;

      d = inb(ODIE_ADDR_IO(s->io_base)) & 0xf0;
      if ((d & 0x80) != 0)
            goto _done;

      if (d == 0) {
            s->codec_type = 1;
            s->ic_type = IC_ODIE;
      } else if ((d & 0x60) != 0) {
            s->codec_type = 2;
            s->ic_type = IC_OPUS;
      } else
            goto _done;

      outb(0xfa, ODIE_ADDR_IO(s->io_base));
      if ((inb(ODIE_ADDR_IO(s->io_base)) & 0x9f) != 0x0a)
            goto _done;

      outb(0xfe, ODIE_ADDR_IO(s->io_base));
      if ((inb(ODIE_ADDR_IO(s->io_base)) & 0x9f) != 0x0e)
            goto _done;
      if ((inb(ODIE_DATA_IO(s->io_base)) & 0x9f) != 0x0e)
            goto _done;

      /*
       * SoundScape successfully detected!
       */
      retval = 1;

      _done:
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&s->lock, flags);
      return retval;
}

/*
 * ALSA callback function, called when attempting to open the MIDI device.
 * Check that the MIDI firmware has been loaded, because we don't want
 * to crash the machine. Also check that someone isn't using the hardware
 * IOCTL device.
 */
static int mpu401_open(mpu401_t * mpu)
{
      int err;

      if (!verify_mpu401(mpu)) {
            snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: MIDI disabled, please load firmware\n");
            err = -ENODEV;
      } else {
            register struct soundscape *sscape = get_mpu401_soundscape(mpu);
            unsigned long flags;

            spin_lock_irqsave(&sscape->fwlock, flags);

            if (sscape->hw_in_use || (sscape->midi_usage == ULONG_MAX)) {
                  err = -EBUSY;
            } else {
                  ++(sscape->midi_usage);
                  err = 0;
            }

            spin_unlock_irqrestore(&sscape->fwlock, flags);
      }

      return err;
}

static void mpu401_close(mpu401_t * mpu)
{
      register struct soundscape *sscape = get_mpu401_soundscape(mpu);
      unsigned long flags;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&sscape->fwlock, flags);
      --(sscape->midi_usage);
      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&sscape->fwlock, flags);
}

/*
 * Initialse an MPU-401 subdevice for MIDI support on the SoundScape.
 */
static int __devinit create_mpu401(snd_card_t * card, int devnum, unsigned long port, int irq)
{
      struct soundscape *sscape = get_card_soundscape(card);
      snd_rawmidi_t *rawmidi;
      int err;

#define MPU401_SHARE_HARDWARE  1
      if ((err = snd_mpu401_uart_new(card, devnum,
                                     MPU401_HW_MPU401,
                                     port, MPU401_SHARE_HARDWARE,
                                     irq, SA_INTERRUPT,
                                     &rawmidi)) == 0) {
            mpu401_t *mpu = (mpu401_t *) rawmidi->private_data;
            mpu->open_input = mpu401_open;
            mpu->open_output = mpu401_open;
            mpu->close_input = mpu401_close;
            mpu->close_output = mpu401_close;
            mpu->private_data = sscape;
            sscape->mpu = mpu;

            initialise_mpu401(mpu);
      }

      return err;
}


/*
 * Override for the CS4231 playback format function.
 * The AD1845 has much simpler format and rate selection.
 */
static void ad1845_playback_format(cs4231_t * chip, snd_pcm_hw_params_t * params, unsigned char format)
{
      unsigned long flags;
      unsigned rate = params_rate(params);

      /*
       * The AD1845 can't handle sample frequencies
       * outside of 4 kHZ to 50 kHZ
       */
      if (rate > 50000)
            rate = 50000;
      else if (rate < 4000)
            rate = 4000;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&chip->reg_lock, flags);

      /*
       * Program the AD1845 correctly for the playback stream.
       * Note that we do NOT need to toggle the MCE bit because
       * the PLAYBACK_ENABLE bit of the Interface Configuration
       * register is set.
       * 
       * NOTE: We seem to need to write to the MSB before the LSB
       *       to get the correct sample frequency.
       */
      snd_cs4231_out(chip, CS4231_PLAYBK_FORMAT, (format & 0xf0));
      snd_cs4231_out(chip, AD1845_FREQ_SEL_MSB, (unsigned char) (rate >> 8));
      snd_cs4231_out(chip, AD1845_FREQ_SEL_LSB, (unsigned char) rate);

      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&chip->reg_lock, flags);
}

/*
 * Override for the CS4231 capture format function. 
 * The AD1845 has much simpler format and rate selection.
 */
static void ad1845_capture_format(cs4231_t * chip, snd_pcm_hw_params_t * params, unsigned char format)
{
      unsigned long flags;
      unsigned rate = params_rate(params);

      /*
       * The AD1845 can't handle sample frequencies 
       * outside of 4 kHZ to 50 kHZ
       */
      if (rate > 50000)
            rate = 50000;
      else if (rate < 4000)
            rate = 4000;

      spin_lock_irqsave(&chip->reg_lock, flags);

      /*
       * Program the AD1845 correctly for the playback stream.
       * Note that we do NOT need to toggle the MCE bit because
       * the CAPTURE_ENABLE bit of the Interface Configuration
       * register is set.
       *
       * NOTE: We seem to need to write to the MSB before the LSB
       *       to get the correct sample frequency.
       */
      snd_cs4231_out(chip, CS4231_REC_FORMAT, (format & 0xf0));
      snd_cs4231_out(chip, AD1845_FREQ_SEL_MSB, (unsigned char) (rate >> 8));
      snd_cs4231_out(chip, AD1845_FREQ_SEL_LSB, (unsigned char) rate);

      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&chip->reg_lock, flags);
}

/*
 * Create an AD1845 PCM subdevice on the SoundScape. The AD1845
 * is very much like a CS4231, with a few extra bits. We will
 * try to support at least some of the extra bits by overriding
 * some of the CS4231 callback.
 */
static int __devinit create_ad1845(snd_card_t * card, unsigned port, int irq, int dma1)
{
      register struct soundscape *sscape = get_card_soundscape(card);
      cs4231_t *chip;
      int err;

#define CS4231_SHARE_HARDWARE  (CS4231_HWSHARE_DMA1 | CS4231_HWSHARE_DMA2)
      /*
       * The AD1845 PCM device is only half-duplex, and so
       * we only give it one DMA channel ...
       */
      if ((err = snd_cs4231_create(card,
                             port, -1, irq, dma1, dma1,
                             CS4231_HW_DETECT,
                             CS4231_HWSHARE_DMA1, &chip)) == 0) {
            unsigned long flags;
            snd_pcm_t *pcm;

#define AD1845_FREQ_SEL_ENABLE  0x08

#define AD1845_PWR_DOWN_CTRL   0x1b
#define AD1845_CRYS_CLOCK_SEL  0x1d

/*
 * It turns out that the PLAYBACK_ENABLE bit is set
 * by the lowlevel driver ...
 *
#define AD1845_IFACE_CONFIG  \
           (CS4231_AUTOCALIB | CS4231_RECORD_ENABLE | CS4231_PLAYBACK_ENABLE)
    snd_cs4231_mce_up(chip);
    spin_lock_irqsave(&chip->reg_lock, flags);
    snd_cs4231_out(chip, CS4231_IFACE_CTRL, AD1845_IFACE_CONFIG);
    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&chip->reg_lock, flags);
    snd_cs4231_mce_down(chip);
 */

            /*
             * The input clock frequency on the SoundScape must
             * be 14.31818 MHz, because we must set this register
             * to get the playback to sound correct ...
             */
            snd_cs4231_mce_up(chip);
            spin_lock_irqsave(&chip->reg_lock, flags);
            snd_cs4231_out(chip, AD1845_CRYS_CLOCK_SEL, 0x20);
            spin_unlock_irqrestore(&chip->reg_lock, flags);
            snd_cs4231_mce_down(chip);

            /*
             * More custom configuration:
             * a) select "mode 2", and provide a current drive of 8 mA
             * b) enable frequency selection (for capture/playback)
             */
            spin_lock_irqsave(&chip->reg_lock, flags);
            snd_cs4231_out(chip, CS4231_MISC_INFO, (CS4231_MODE2 | 0x10));
            snd_cs4231_out(chip, AD1845_PWR_DOWN_CTRL, snd_cs4231_in(chip, AD1845_PWR_DOWN_CTRL) | AD1845_FREQ_SEL_ENABLE);
            spin_unlock_irqrestore(&chip->reg_lock, flags);

            if ((err = snd_cs4231_pcm(chip, 0, &pcm)) < 0) {
                  snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: No PCM device for AD1845 chip\n");
                  goto _error;
            }

            if ((err = snd_cs4231_mixer(chip)) < 0) {
                  snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: No mixer device for AD1845 chip\n");
                  goto _error;
            }

            if ((err = snd_ctl_add(card, snd_ctl_new1(&midi_mixer_ctl, chip))) < 0) {
                  snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: Could not create MIDI mixer control\n");
                  goto _error;
            }

            strcpy(card->driver, "SoundScape");
            strcpy(card->shortname, pcm->name);
            snprintf(card->longname, sizeof(card->longname),
                     "%s at 0x%lx, IRQ %d, DMA %d\n",
                     pcm->name, chip->port, chip->irq, chip->dma1);
            chip->set_playback_format = ad1845_playback_format;
            chip->set_capture_format = ad1845_capture_format;
            sscape->chip = chip;
      }

      _error:
      return err;
}


struct params
{
      int index;
      const char *id;
      unsigned port;
      int irq;
      int mpu_irq;
      int dma1;
};


static inline struct params*
init_params(struct params *params,
            int index,
            const char *id,
            unsigned port,
            int irq,
            int mpu_irq,
            int dma1)
{
      params->index = index;
      params->id = id;
      params->port = port;
      params->irq = irq;
      params->mpu_irq = mpu_irq;  
      params->dma1 = (dma1 & 0x03);

      return params;
}


/*
 * Create an ALSA soundcard entry for the SoundScape, using
 * the given list of port, IRQ and DMA resources.
 */
static int __devinit create_sscape(const struct params *params, snd_card_t **rcardp)
{
      snd_card_t *card;
      register struct soundscape *sscape;
      register unsigned dma_cfg;
      unsigned irq_cfg;
      unsigned mpu_irq_cfg;
      struct resource *io_res;
      unsigned long flags;
      int err;

      /*
       * Check that the user didn't pass us garbage data ...
       */
      irq_cfg = get_irq_config(params->irq);
      if (irq_cfg == INVALID_IRQ) {
            snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: Invalid IRQ %d\n", params->irq);
            return -ENXIO;
      }

      mpu_irq_cfg = get_irq_config(params->mpu_irq);
      if (mpu_irq_cfg == INVALID_IRQ) {
            printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: Invalid IRQ %d\n", params->mpu_irq);
            return -ENXIO;
      }

      /*
       * Grab IO ports that we will need to probe so that we
       * can detect and control this hardware ...
       */
      if ((io_res = request_region(params->port, 8, "SoundScape")) == NULL) {
            snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: can't grab port 0x%x\n", params->port);
            return -EBUSY;
      }

      /*
       * Grab both DMA channels (OK, only one for now) ...
       */
      if ((err = request_dma(params->dma1, "SoundScape")) < 0) {
            snd_printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: can't grab DMA %d\n", params->dma1);
            goto _release_region;
      }

      /*
       * Create a new ALSA sound card entry, in anticipation
       * of detecting our hardware ...
       */
      if ((card = snd_card_new(params->index, params->id, THIS_MODULE, sizeof(struct soundscape))) == NULL) {
            err = -ENOMEM;
            goto _release_dma;
      }

      sscape = get_card_soundscape(card);
      spin_lock_init(&sscape->lock);
      spin_lock_init(&sscape->fwlock);
      sscape->io_res = io_res;
      sscape->io_base = params->port;

      if (!detect_sscape(sscape)) {
            printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: hardware not detected at 0x%x\n", sscape->io_base);
            err = -ENODEV;
            goto _release_card;
      }

      printk(KERN_INFO "sscape: hardware detected at 0x%x, using IRQ %d, DMA %d\n",
                       sscape->io_base, params->irq, params->dma1);

      /*
       * Now create the hardware-specific device so that we can
       * load the microcode into the on-board processor.
       * We cannot use the MPU-401 MIDI system until this firmware
       * has been loaded into the card.
       */
      if ((err = snd_hwdep_new(card, "MC68EC000", 0, &(sscape->hw))) < 0) {
            printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: Failed to create firmware device\n");
            goto _release_card;
      }
      strlcpy(sscape->hw->name, "SoundScape M68K", sizeof(sscape->hw->name));
      sscape->hw->name[sizeof(sscape->hw->name) - 1] = '\0';
      sscape->hw->iface = SNDRV_HWDEP_IFACE_SSCAPE;
      sscape->hw->ops.open = sscape_hw_open;
      sscape->hw->ops.release = sscape_hw_release;
      sscape->hw->ops.ioctl = sscape_hw_ioctl;
      sscape->hw->private_data = sscape;

      /*
       * Tell the on-board devices where their resources are (I think -
       * I can't be sure without a datasheet ... So many magic values!)
       */
      spin_lock_irqsave(&sscape->lock, flags);

      activate_ad1845_unsafe(sscape->io_base);

      sscape_write_unsafe(sscape->io_base, GA_INTENA_REG, 0x00); /* disable */
      sscape_write_unsafe(sscape->io_base, GA_SMCFGA_REG, 0x2e);
      sscape_write_unsafe(sscape->io_base, GA_SMCFGB_REG, 0x00);

      /*
       * Enable and configure the DMA channels ...
       */
      sscape_write_unsafe(sscape->io_base, GA_DMACFG_REG, 0x50);
      dma_cfg = (sscape->ic_type == IC_ODIE ? 0x70 : 0x40);
      sscape_write_unsafe(sscape->io_base, GA_DMAA_REG, dma_cfg);
      sscape_write_unsafe(sscape->io_base, GA_DMAB_REG, 0x20);

      sscape_write_unsafe(sscape->io_base,
                          GA_INTCFG_REG, 0xf0 | (mpu_irq_cfg << 2) | mpu_irq_cfg);
      sscape_write_unsafe(sscape->io_base,
                          GA_CDCFG_REG, 0x09 | DMA_8BIT | (params->dma1 << 4) | (irq_cfg << 1));

      spin_unlock_irqrestore(&sscape->lock, flags);

      /*
       * We have now enabled the codec chip, and so we should
       * detect the AD1845 device ...
       */
      if ((err = create_ad1845(card, CODEC_IO(params->port), params->irq, params->dma1)) < 0) {
            printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: No AD1845 device at 0x%x, IRQ %d\n",
                            CODEC_IO(params->port), params->irq);
            goto _release_card;
      }
#define MIDI_DEVNUM  0
      if ((err = create_mpu401(card, MIDI_DEVNUM, MPU401_IO(params->port), params->mpu_irq)) < 0) {
            printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: Failed to create MPU-401 device at 0x%x\n",
                            MPU401_IO(params->port));
            goto _release_card;
      }

      /*
       * Enable the master IRQ ...
       */
      sscape_write(sscape, GA_INTENA_REG, 0x80);

      /*
       * Initialize mixer
       */
      sscape->midi_vol = 0;
      host_write_ctrl_unsafe(sscape->io_base, CMD_SET_MIDI_VOL, 100);
      host_write_ctrl_unsafe(sscape->io_base, 0, 100);
      host_write_ctrl_unsafe(sscape->io_base, CMD_XXX_MIDI_VOL, 100);

      /*
       * Now that we have successfully created this sound card,
       * it is safe to store the pointer.
       * NOTE: we only register the sound card's "destructor"
       *       function now that our "constructor" has completed.
       */
      card->private_free = soundscape_free;
      *rcardp = card;

      return 0;

      _release_card:
      snd_card_free(card);

      _release_dma:
      free_dma(params->dma1);

      _release_region:
      release_and_free_resource(io_res);

      return err;
}


static int sscape_cards __devinitdata;
static struct params sscape_params[SNDRV_CARDS] __devinitdata;

#ifdef CONFIG_PNP
static inline int __devinit get_next_autoindex(int i)
{
      while ((i < SNDRV_CARDS) && (port[i] != SNDRV_AUTO_PORT)) {
            ++i;
      } /* while */

      return i;
}


static inline int __devinit is_port_known(unsigned io, struct params *params, int cards)
{
      while (--cards >= 0) {
            if (params[cards].port == io)
                  return 1;
      } /* while */

      return 0;
}

static int __devinit sscape_pnp_detect(struct pnp_card_link *pcard,
                               const struct pnp_card_device_id *pid)
{
      struct pnp_dev *dev;
      static int idx = 0;
      int ret;

      /*
       * Allow this function to fail *quietly* if all the ISA PnP
       * devices were configured using module parameters instead.
       */
      if ((idx = get_next_autoindex(idx)) >= SNDRV_CARDS) {
            return -ENOSPC;
      }

      /*
       * We have found a candidate ISA PnP card. Now we
       * have to check that it has the devices that we
       * expect it to have.
       *
       * We will NOT try and autoconfigure all of the resources
       * needed and then activate the card as we are assuming that
       * has already been done at boot-time using /proc/isapnp.
       * We shall simply try to give each active card the resources
       * that it wants. This is a sensible strategy for a modular
       * system where unused modules are unloaded regularly.
       *
       * This strategy is utterly useless if we compile the driver
       * into the kernel, of course.
       */
      // printk(KERN_INFO "sscape: %s\n", card->name);

      /*
       * Check that we still have room for another sound card ...
       */
      if (sscape_cards >= SNDRV_CARDS) {
            printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: No room for another ALSA device\n");
            return -ENOSPC;
      }

      ret = -ENODEV;

      dev = pnp_request_card_device(pcard, pid->devs[0].id, NULL);
      if (dev) {
            struct params *this;
            if (!pnp_is_active(dev)) {
                  if (pnp_activate_dev(dev) < 0) {
                        printk(KERN_INFO "sscape: device is inactive\n");
                        return -EBUSY;
                  }
            }
            /*
             * Read the correct parameters off the ISA PnP bus ...
             */
            this = init_params(&sscape_params[sscape_cards],
                           index[idx],
                           id[idx],
                           pnp_port_start(dev, 0),
                           pnp_irq(dev, 0),
                           pnp_irq(dev, 1),
                           pnp_dma(dev, 0));

            /*
             * Do we know about this sound card already?
             */
            if ( !is_port_known(this->port, sscape_params, sscape_cards) ) {
                  snd_card_t *card;

                  ret = create_sscape(this, &card);
                  if (ret < 0)
                        return ret;
                  snd_card_set_dev(card, &pcard->card->dev);

                  if ((ret = snd_card_register(card)) < 0) {
                        printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: Failed to register sound card\n");
                        snd_card_free(card);
                        return ret;
                  }

                  pnp_set_card_drvdata(pcard, card);
                  ++sscape_cards;
                  ++idx;
            }
      }

      return ret;
}

static void __devexit sscape_pnp_remove(struct pnp_card_link * pcard)
{
      snd_card_t *card = (snd_card_t *) pnp_get_card_drvdata(pcard);
        
      pnp_set_card_drvdata(pcard, NULL);
      snd_card_disconnect(card);
      snd_card_free_in_thread(card);
}

static struct pnp_card_driver sscape_pnpc_driver = {
      .flags = PNP_DRIVER_RES_DO_NOT_CHANGE,
      .name = "sscape",
      .id_table = sscape_pnpids,
      .probe = sscape_pnp_detect,
      .remove = __devexit_p(sscape_pnp_remove),
};

#endif /* CONFIG_PNP */

static int __init sscape_manual_probe(struct params *params)
{
      int ret;
      unsigned i;
      snd_card_t *card;

      for (i = 0; i < SNDRV_CARDS; ++i) {
            /*
             * We do NOT probe for ports.
             * If we're not given a port number for this
             * card then we completely ignore this line
             * of parameters.
             */
            if (port[i] == SNDRV_AUTO_PORT)
                  continue;

            /*
             * Make sure we were given ALL of the other parameters.
             */
            if ( (irq[i] == SNDRV_AUTO_IRQ) ||
                 (mpu_irq[i] == SNDRV_AUTO_IRQ) ||
                 (dma[i] == SNDRV_AUTO_DMA) ) {
                  printk(KERN_INFO
                         "sscape: insufficient parameters, need IO, IRQ, MPU-IRQ and DMA\n");
                  return -ENXIO;
            }

            /*
             * This cards looks OK ...
             */
            init_params(params, index[i], id[i], port[i], irq[i], mpu_irq[i], dma[i]);

            ret = create_sscape(params, &card);
            if (ret < 0)
                  return ret;

            if ((ret = snd_card_set_generic_dev(card)) < 0) {
                  snd_card_free(card);
                  return ret;
            }
            if ((ret = snd_card_register(card)) < 0) {
                  printk(KERN_ERR "sscape: Failed to register sound card\n");
                  snd_card_free(card);
                  return ret;
            }

            sscape_card[sscape_cards] = card;
            params++;
            sscape_cards++;
      } /* for */

      return 0;
}


static void sscape_exit(void)
{
      unsigned i;

#ifdef CONFIG_PNP
      pnp_unregister_card_driver(&sscape_pnpc_driver);
#endif
      for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(sscape_card); ++i) {
            snd_card_free(sscape_card[i]);
      } /* for */
}


static int __init sscape_init(void)
{
      int ret;

      /*
       * First check whether we were passed any parameters.
       * These MUST take precedence over ANY automatic way
       * of allocating cards, because the operator is
       * S-P-E-L-L-I-N-G it out for us...
       */
      ret = sscape_manual_probe(sscape_params);
      if (ret < 0) {
            int i;
            for (i = 0; i < sscape_cards; ++i)
                  snd_card_free(sscape_card[i]);
            return ret;
      }

#ifdef CONFIG_PNP
      if (sscape_cards < SNDRV_CARDS) {
            ret = pnp_register_card_driver(&sscape_pnpc_driver);
            if (ret < 0) {
                  sscape_exit();
                  return ret;
            }
      }
#endif

      return 0;
}

module_init(sscape_init);
module_exit(sscape_exit);

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